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EPMA Journal

pp 1–13 | Cite as

Colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia as the proof-of-principle model for implementing strategies of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine in healthcare

  • Mesnad Alyabsi
  • Abdulrahman Alhumaid
  • Haafiz Allah-Bakhsh
  • Mohammed Alkelya
  • Mohammad Azhar AzizEmail author
Review

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Saudi males and ranks third in females with up to 73% of cases diagnosed at late stage. This review provides an analysis of CRC situation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from healthcare perspective. A PUBMED (1986–2018) search was done to identify publications focusing on CRC in KSA. Due to reports of increased CRC incidence among young age group (< 50), and given the young population of KSA, the disease may burden the national healthcare system in the next decades. Environmental factors attributed to increasing incidence rates of CRC include red meat consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and increased calorie intake. Despite substantial investment in healthcare, attention to predictive diagnostics and targeted prevention is lacking. There is a need to develop national screening guidelines based on evidence that supports a reduction in incidence and mortality of CRC when screening is implemented. Future approaches are discussed based on multi-level diagnostics, risk assessment, and population screening programs focused on the needs of young populations that among others present the contents of the advanced approach by predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. Recommendations are provided that could help to develop policies at regional and national levels. Countries with demographics and lifestyle similar to KSA may gain insights from this review to shape their policies and procedures.

Keywords

Predictive preventive personalized medicine, colorectal cancer Screening Personalized patient profiling Young population Risk factors Treatment tailored to the person Targeted prevention, healthcare strategy, biomarkers Saudi Arabia 

Notes

Author contributions

All authors contributed to this paper with conception and design of the study, literature review and analysis, drafting and critical revision and editing, and final approval of the final version.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent of publication

Not applicable.

Ethical approval

Not applicable.

Core tips

The incidence of CRC is rising at an alarming rate especially in affluent nations, a reflection of the prevalent dietary and lifestyle choices known to be conducive to a variety of colonic diseases. No prior study reviewed current CRC epidemiology in Saudi Arabia. Our objective is to consolidate current research on the epidemiology and prevention of CRC in Saudi Arabia.

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Copyright information

© European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Population Health Research SectionKing Abdullah International Medical Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health SciencesRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Organ Transplant & Hepatobiliary Surgery, Ministry of National Guard Health AffairsKing Abdullah International Medical Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Colorectal Cancer Research Program, Department of Cellular Therapy and Cancer ResearchKing Abdullah International Medical Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.King Abdulaziz Medical CityMinistry of National Guard Health AffairsRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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