EPMA Journal

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 115–123 | Cite as

Determining health-promoting behavior in smokers preparing to quit: a holistic and personalized approach

  • Didem KafadarEmail author
  • Ayşe Didem Esen
  • Seçil Arıca



Smoking cessation practices enable health professionals to identify lifestyle of their patients as an initial step to achieve predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM). In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the smoking habit and health-promoting behavior of patients who planned to quit smoking.


In this descriptive study, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) was implemented to current smokers admitted to smoking cessation outpatient clinics of two tertiary hospitals. Patients without any comorbidities were included. Sociodemographic variables, Fagerström dependency test, and smoking habit were recorded. Descriptive and analytical statistical evaluations were performed.


A total of 200 patients, 134 men (67%) and 66 women (33%) with a mean age of 34.49 ± 8.82, were included to the study. Among them, 90 (45%) were white collar, and 110 (55%) were blue-collar workers. Patients with BMI ≥ 25 were 126 (63%); Fagerström test score median was 7. Packages per year, dependency scores, the age the patients started smoking, and cigarettes smoked per day inversely correlated with health-promoting behavior. Our patients had high scores in spiritual growth and interpersonal relationships and had low scores in physical activity and stress management. Health-promoting behavior, health responsibility, self-actualization, and interpersonal relationships were less favorable in blue-collar workers than white-collar workers.


Smoking behavior affects especially physical activity and stress management in the study population preparing for smoking cessation. Health-promoting activities in smokers are influenced by occupation as well as dependency levels and smoking habits. Differences exist among white and blue-collar workers in health-promoting behavior. Defining and screening multiple health risk behavior in smokers empower predictive measures and targeted preventive medicine, such as maintaining healthy nutrition and leaving sedentary lifestyle along with efforts to quit smoking. Awareness about health-promoting behavior and thus identifying smokers who need lifestyle interventions can provide and attenuate a holistic and personalized approach in preventive medicine.


Health promotion Smoking cessation Preventive medicine Nutrition Physical activity 



body mass index


confidence interval


standard deviation


Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II


health responsibility


interpersonal relationships


physical activity




spiritual growth


stress management


Author contributions

DK and ADE designed the study and contributed to the data collection and data management. DK, ADE, and SA interpreted the results. DK wrote the paper. DK and ADE revised the paper. All authors reviewed the paper, provided significant feedback, and approved the final manuscript.

Funding information

This article was not supported by any funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital with the reference number 2016-525. All participants have provided written consent after a brief information.


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Copyright information

© European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.İstanbul Bağcilar Training and Research Hospital, Department of Family MedicineHealth Sciences UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.İstanbul Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital, Department of Family MedicineHealth Sciences UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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