EPMA Journal

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 109–114 | Cite as

Norwegian drug information centres strongly promote person-centred and personalised medicine: a brief report on the achievements and strategy

  • Jan SchjøttEmail author
Mini Review


The Norwegian network of drug information centres (RELIS) has achievements in person-centred and personalised medicine. RELIS receive questions from physicians, pharmacists, nurses and other health professionals and provide decision support in all aspects of pharmacotherapy. Questions associated with person-centred medicine often include problems with unrealistic risk perception and poor adherence among patients. Questions associated with personalised medicine frequently concern comorbidity, biomarkers and pharmacogenetics. The questions frequently include a mix of problems related to health and disease care. The RELIS staff addresses each question in a problem-oriented approach with expertise in pharmacology and skills in searching and critical evaluation of the literature. A written answer can describe decision support concerning patient empowerment, further diagnostics and preferences in pharmacotherapy including advice with regard to choice of drug and dose to a patient. Links to online resources and attached references for further reading are often included in the answers. The question–answer service is documented in a full-text, searchable question–answer database. Additional drug information activities towards clinicians and patients, and a multi-professional staff with pharmacists and clinical pharmacologists, are important elements in RELIS drug information strategy, and it is essentially relevant to predictive, preventive and personalised medicine (PPPM).


Database Decision support Drug information centre Multi-professional expertise Patient empowerment Person-centred medicine PPPM Risk 



Alanine aminotransferase


Alkaline phosphatase


Cytochrome P450


Drug information centres


Drug-induced liver injury


Electroconvulsive therapy


General practitioner


Hormone replacement therapy


Oral contraceptives


Predictive, preventive and personalised medicine

Q/A pairs

Question/answer pairs


Norwegian network of drug information centres


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors


Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine


Therapeutic drug monitoring


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no competing interests.

Ethical approval

Not applicable.


  1. 1.
    Alván G, Öhman B, Sjöqvist F. Problem-oriented drug information: a clinical pharmacological service. Lancet. 1983;322(8364):1410–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schjøtt J, Pomp E, Gedde-Dahl A. Quality and impact of problem-oriented drug information: a method to change clinical practice among physicians? Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;57(12):897–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schjøtt J, Reppe LA, Roland PD, Westergren T. A question-answer pair (QAP) database integrated with websites to answer complex questions submitted to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS): a descriptive study. BMJ Open. 2012;2(2):e000642. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schjøtt J. Benefits of a national network of drug information centres: RELIS. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;73(1):125–6. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Del Fiol G, Weber AI, Brunker CP, Weir CR. Clinical questions raised by providers in the care of older adults: a prospective observational study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(7):e005315. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cook DA, Sorensen KJ, Wilkinson JM, Berger RA. Barriers and decisions when answering clinical questions at the point of care: a grounded theory study. JAMA Int Med. 2013;173(21):1962–9. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frost Widnes SK, Schjøtt J. Drug use in pregnancy--physicians’ evaluation of quality and clinical impact of drug information centres. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;65(3):303–8. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bakkebø T, Widnes SF, Aamlid SS, Schjøtt J. Physicians’ perception of teratogenic risk and confidence in prescribing drugs in pregnancy - influence of Norwegian drug information centers. Clin Ther. 2016;38(5):1102–8. Scholar
  9. 9.
    El-Alti L, Sandman L, Munthe C. Person centered care and personalized medicine: irreconcilable opposites or potential companions? Health Care Anal. 2019;27(1):45–59. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roberti di Sarsina P, Tassinari M. Person-centred healthcare and medicine paradigm: it’s time to clarify. EPMA J. 2015;6(11):11. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Golubnitschaja O, Baban B, Boniolo G, Wang W, Bubnov R, Kapalla M, et al. Medicine in the early twenty-first century: paradigm and anticipation - EPMA position paper 2016. EPMA J. 2016;7(23):23. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thürmann PA. Clinical pharmacology in everyday clinical care. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;69(Suppl 1):89–93. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gabay MP. The evolution of drug information centers and specialists. Hosp Pharm. 2017;52(7):452–3. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schjøtt J, Spigset O. Drug information centres and their provision of decision support: the Scandinavian experience. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2019.
  15. 15.
    Golubnitschaja O, Costigliola V, Grech G. EPMA World Congress: traditional forum in predictive, preventive and personalised medicine for multi-professional consideration and consolidation. EPMA J. 2017;8(Suppl):1–54. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schjøtt J, Bergman J. Joint medicine-information and pharmacovigilance services could improve detection and communication about drug-safety problems. Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2014;6:89–92. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Srivastava A, Singh D, Montagu D, Bhattacharyya S. Putting women at the center: a review of Indian policy to address person-centered care in maternal and newborn health, family planning and abortion. BMC Public Health. 2017;18(1):20. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Diamond-Smith N, Warnock R, Sudhinaraset M. Interventions to improve the person-centered quality of family planning services: a narrative review. Reprod Health. 2018;15(1):144. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rubashkin N, Warnock R, Diamond-Smith N. A systematic review of person-centered care interventions to improve quality of facility-based delivery. Reprod Health. 2018;15(1):169. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Widnes SF, Schjøtt J, Eide GE, Granas AG. Teratogenic risk perception and confidence in use of medicines in pairs of pregnant women and general practitioners based on patient information leaflets. Drug Saf. 2013;36(6):481–9. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Widnes SF, Schjøtt J. Risk perception regarding drug use in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;216(4):375–8. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frost Widnes SK, Schjøtt J. Advice on drug safety in pregnancy: are there differences between commonly used sources of information? Drug Saf. 2008;31(9):799–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vogenberg FR, Isaacson Barash C, Pursel M. Personalized medicine: part 1: evolution and development into theranostics. P T. 2010;35(10):560–76.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mathur S, Sutton J. Personalized medicine could transform healthcare. Biomed Rep. 2017;7(1):3–5. Scholar
  25. 25.
    European Council Conclusion on personalized medicine for patients (2015/C 421/03),, 17.12. 2015, access date: March 3, 2019.
  26. 26.
    Campello E, Spiezia L, Simioni P. Diagnosis and management of factor V Leiden. Expert Rev Hematol. 2016;9(12):1139–49. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Golubnitschaja O, Watson ID, Topic E, Sandberg S, Ferrari M, Costigliola V. Position paper of the EPMA and EFCCLM: a global vision of the consolidated promotion of an integrative medical approach to advance healthcare. EPMA J. 2013;4(1):12. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bergman J, Schjøtt J. Hepatitis caused by Lotus-f3? Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;104(5):414–6. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schjøtt J, Erdal H. Questions about complementary and alternative medicine to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS): a descriptive pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14(56).
  30. 30.
    Golubnitschaja O, Costigliola V, EPMA. General report & recommendations in predictive, preventive and personalised medicine 2012: white paper of the European association for predictive, preventive and personalised medicine. EPMA J. 2012;3:14. Scholar

Copyright information

© European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Biochemistry and PharmacologyHaukeland University HospitalBergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations