Evaluation of early maturing promiscuous soybean varieties in the irrigated and the rain-fed areas of Sudan
- 14 Downloads
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is relatively a new crop in Sudan. Limited number of improved varieties for commercial use requires the development of early maturing and high-yielding soybean varieties suiting the diverse agro-climatic zones of the country. Eight promising soybean varieties introduced from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) were evaluated at eight irrigated and rain fed environments at Wad Medani, Kenana, and Damazin from 2014 to 2016. The improved late maturing varieties Sudan1 and Sudan2 were used as checks. Trials were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The highest grain yields were obtained for the checks Sudan1 (2400 kg ha−1) and Sudan2 (2330 kg ha−1); followed by the introduced varieties TGx 1972-11F (2160 kg ha−1) and TGx 1977-2F (2040 kg ha−1). However, TGx 1987-10F and TGx 1972-11F were earlier than the checks, at least 2-week differences in the 50% flowering and days to maturity. Comparing these two varieties with the checks, TGx 1972-11F and TGx 1977-2F had 1.00 and 0.99, 95% confidence interval, indicating that these two varieties had a good yield stability over environments. Grain yield was also positively correlated with fodder yield, plant height, pods plant−1, and harvest index. The high average grain yields and yield stability of TGx 1972-11F across environments, coupled with its early maturity and good grain quality, makes the TGx 1972-11F an excellent choice to be released for commercial use. This prompted the National Variety Release Committee of the country to release it under the name of “Soya4.”
KeywordsSoybean Early-maturing Varieties Irrigated Rain fed
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Our thanks are extended to Damazin Research Station and Kenana Sugar Company for their collaboration in managing the variety field trials.
All authors contributed to the study in terms of conceptualization, literature review, data analysis, result interpretations, and editorials.
We thank the Korea-Africa Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (KAFACI), Republic of Korea, and Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan, for funding this research through KAFACI-country project “Development of improved soybean varieties and germplasm for rain-fed and irrigated farming in Sudan.”
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All necessary protocols were observed in the course of data collection and interaction with the respondents.
- Balla MY, Ibrahim SE (2017) Genotypic correlation and path coefficient analysis of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] for yield and its components. Agric Res Tech 7:555715.Google Scholar
- Bellaloui N, Bruns H, Gillen A, Abbas H, Zablotowicz R, Mengistu A, Paris R (2010) Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation. Agric Sci 1:102–109Google Scholar
- Foyer CH, Siddique KHM, Tai APK, Anders S, Fodor N, Wong F-L, Ludidi N, Chapman MA, Fergusson BJ, Considine MJ, Zabel F, Prasad PVV, Varshney RK, Nguyen HT, Lam H-M (2018) Modelling predicts that soybean is poised to dominate crop production across Africa. Plant Cell Environ 42:373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ibrahim SE (2011) Soybean: crop of hope in Sudan. Symposium of Korean Society of International Agriculture held in Suwon, Republic of Korea, 21 June 2011, 199–215.Google Scholar
- Ibrahim SE (2012a) Agronomic studies on irrigated soybeans in central Sudan: I. Effect of plant spacing on grain yield and yield components. Int J Agric Sci 2:733–739Google Scholar
- Ibrahim SE (2012b) Agronomic studies on irrigated soybeans in central Sudan: II. Effect of sowing date on grain yield and yield components. Int J Agric Sci 2:766–773Google Scholar
- Ibrahim SE (2015) Development of improved soybean varieties and germplasm for rainfed and irrigated farming in Sudan, final report of KFACI-country project: ‘Development of improved soybean varieties and germplasm for rainfed and irrigated farming in Sudan’. Gezira Research Station, Wad Medani, SudanGoogle Scholar
- Ibrahim SE (2016) The current and the future of soybean breeding in Sudan. 7th International Crop Science Congress (7th ICSC), 14-19 August 2016, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
- Ibrahim SE (2018) Soybean research in Sudan: current status, achievements, challenges and future prospects. A Symposium to Mark the 100th Anniversary of the Gezira Research Station: “Agricultural Research in Sudan: Current Status, Achievements, Challenges and Future Prospects”, 25-26 December 2018, Wad Medani, Sudan.Google Scholar
- Jackson ML (1958) Soil chemical analyses. Prentice Hall. Inc. Engle Wood Cliffs, N. J. USA, p 498Google Scholar
- Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD, Schabenberger O (2006) SAS® for mixed models, 2nd edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
- Matusso JMM, Mugwe JN, Mucheru-Muna M (2014) Potential role of cereal-legume intercropping systems in integrated soil fertility management in smallholder farming systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. J Agric Environ Manag 3:162–174Google Scholar
- McLean EO (1982) Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I1 (2nd Edn). Madison, WI, American Society of Agronomy, p 1159Google Scholar
- Raimi A, Adeleke R, Roopnarain A (2017) Soil fertility challenges and Biofertiliser as a viable alternative for increasing smallholder farmer crop productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Cogent Food Agric 3:1400933Google Scholar
- Tefera H (2011) Breeding for promiscuous soybeans at IITA – molecular aspects of breeding. In: Sudaric A (ed) Soybean—Molecular Aspects of Breeding. Intech, Rijeka, CroatiaGoogle Scholar