Advertisement

Increased utilisation of renewable resources: dilemmas for organic agriculture

  • Anne-Kristin LøesEmail author
  • Steffen Adler
Article
  • 70 Downloads

Abstract

Minimising outputs of waste and pollution by recycling and efficient utilisation of renewable resources is of common interest for organic agriculture and the concepts of circular and bioeconomy. However, in practice, many efforts to increase recycling of various biological materials in organic agriculture are hampered because standards for certified organic production and processing tend to prefer natural products while avoiding processing and especially chemical processes. This creates several dilemmas and weakens the position of organic agriculture as a spear head in the development of a better resource utilisation which will reduce environmental impacts from food production. Based on practical examples derived from projects aimed at better utilisation of residual materials in various food chains, this paper presents some of these dilemmas. Our aim is to initiate a discussion among organic agriculture stakeholders about the regulations for organic production, how they restrict recycling and a better utilisation of valuable resources, and how this can be overcome.

Keywords

Natural substance Innovative food and feed products Processing Recycled fertilisers Regulations 

Notes

References

  1. Adler S, Honkapäa K, Slizyte R, Løes A-K (2018) In vitro pepsin digestibility and amino acid composition in soluble and residual fractions of hydrolyzed chicken feathers. Poult Sci 97:3343–3357.  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbenz M, Gould D, Stopes C (2016) Organic 3.0 – for truly sustainable farming and consumption. IFOAM Organics International, Bonn and SOAAN, Bonn. https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/organic3.0_v.2_web_0.pdf. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  3. Baird CS (2013) What is the difference between a chemical process and a physical process in chemistry? http://wtamu.edu/~cbaird/sq/2013/09/24/what-is-the-difference-between-a-chemical-process-and-a-physical-process-in-chemistry/. Accessed 13 Nov 2018
  4. Bioland (2016) Bioland standards as of November 22nd, 2016. http://www.bioland.de/fileadmin/dateien/HP_Dokumente/Richtlinien/Bioland_Standards_2016-11-22.pdf. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  5. Borrello M, Caracciolo F, Lombardi A, Pascucci S, Cembalo L (2017) Consumers’ perspective on circular economy strategy for reducing food waste. Sustainability 9:141.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper J, Reed EY, Hörtenhuber S, Lindenthal T, Løes AK, Mäder P, Magid J, Oberson A, Kolbe H, Möller K (2018) Phosphorus availability on many organically managed farms in Europe. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 110:227–239.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-017-9894-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Amato D, Droste N, Allen B, Kettunen M, Lähtinen K, Korhonen J, Leskinen P, Matthies PD, Toppinen A (2017) Green, circular, bio economy: a comparative analysis of sustainability avenues. J Clean Prod 168:716–734.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eilertsen A, Aursand M, Carvajal AK (2017) Total utilization of raw materials in the supply chain for food with a bio-economical perspective. SINTEF Ocean AS, Trondheim, Norway. Report no OC2017:00859. ISBN 978–82–14-06591-6. 75 p. http://orgprints.org/32704/. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  9. Encyclopaedia Britannica (2018) Chemical reaction. https://www.britannica.com/science/chemical-reaction. Accessed 13 Nov 2018
  10. European Economic Community (EEC) (1991) Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, Brussels. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:31991R2092&from=EN. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  11. European Union (EU) (2003) Regulation (EC) No 2003/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 relating to fertilisers. Official Journal of the European Union L 304/1, 21 November 2003. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:304:0001:0194:en:PDF. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  12. European Union (EU) (2008) Commission Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 of 5 September 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products with regard to organic production, labelling and control. Official Journal of the European Union, Brussels. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008R0889&from=EN. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  13. Foods of Norway (2016) Foods of Norway Annual Report 2016. https://www.foodsofnorway.net/about/annual-reports. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  14. Geissdörfer M, Savaget P, Bocken NMP, Hultink EJ (2017) The circular economy – a new sustainability paradigm? J Clean Prod 143:757–768.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hjellnes VH (2017) Økt utnyttelse av verpehøns (Gallus Gallus domesticus). (In Norwegian, with English summary). Master thesis, Dep. of biotechnology, NTNU. https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/2433709. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  16. Howard A (1943) An agricultural testament. http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library/howardAT/ATtoc.html#contents. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  17. Hughner RS, McDonagh P, Prothero A, Shultz CJ, Stanton J (2007) Who are organic food consumers? A compilation and review of why people purchase organic food. J Consum Behav 6:94–110.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) (2005) Principles of organic agriculture, adopted by the IFOAM General assembly in Adelaide, Australia 2005. https://www.ifoam.bio/en/organic-landmarks/principles-organic-agriculture. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  19. IFOAM (2008) Definition of organic agriculture. Approved by the IFOAM General Assembly in Vignola, Italy in June 2008. https://www.ifoam.bio/en/organic-landmarks/definition-organic-agriculture. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  20. IFOAM (2014) The IFOAM norms for organic production and processing. Version 2014. https://www.ifoam.bio/en/ifoam-norms. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  21. IFOAM-EU (2015) A roadmap towards sustainable growth of the EU organic sector. Position on the Commission proposal for a new organic regulation. http://www.ifoam-eu.org/sites/default/files/ifoameu_reg_roadmaporganicsector_positionpaper_updated_20150115.pdf. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  22. IFOAM-EU (2018) List of EU organic regulations. http://www.ifoam-eu.org/en/organic-regulations/list-eu-organic-regulations. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  23. Koeleman E (2018) EU Protein Plan to target protein deficit. All about feed, February 21, 2018. http://www.allaboutfeed.net/New-Proteins/Articles/2018/2/EU-Protein-Plan-to-target-protein-deficit-250899E/. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  24. Koesling M, Flaten O, Lien G (2008) Factors influencing the conversion to organic farming in Norway. Int J Agric Resour Gov Ecol 7:78–95.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJARGE.2008.016981 Google Scholar
  25. KRAV (2018) Tillåtna organiska gödsel- och jordförbättringsmedel (Permitted organic fertilizers and soil amendments; in Swedish). http://arkiv.krav.se/regler/kravs_regler_2017_flipp/files/assets/common/downloads/page0094.pdf. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  26. Løes AK (2016) What does the organic sector think about different phosphorus fertilizers? NORSØK report 1(3) 2016. Norwegian Centre for Organic Agriculture, Tingvoll, Norway, p 40. http://orgprints.org/30368/. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  27. Løes AK (2017) Eggshells for liming and nutrition. In: Eilertsen A et al (eds) Total utilization of raw materials in the supply chain for food with a bio-economical perspective. SINTEF Ocean AS, Trondheim, Norway. Report no OC2017:00859. ISBN 978–82–14-06591-6. pp 26–27. http://orgprints.org/32704/. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  28. Løes AK, Thakur M, Eilertsen A, Fløan T (2016) Case: Ecopro biogas. Energy and nutrients towards the end of the food chain. Poster at: NoRest conference, Copenhagen, October 26–27, 2016. http://orgprints.org/31173/. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  29. Løes AK, Bünemann EK, Cooper J, Hörtenhuber S, Magid J, Oberson A, Möller K (2017) Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries. Org Agric 7:395–418.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-016-0165-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Merriam-Webster (2018) Chemical reaction. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chemical%20reaction. Accessed 13 Nov 2018
  31. Möller K, Oberson A, Bünemann EK, Cooper J, Friedel JK, Glæsner N, Hörtenhuber S, Løes AK, Mäder P, Meyer G, Müller T, Symanczik S, Weissengruber L, Wollmann I, Magid J (2018) Improved phosphorus recycling in organic farming: navigating between constraints. Adv Agron 147:159–237.  https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2017.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nguyen H, Stuchtey M, Zils M (2014) Remaking the industrial economy. McKinsey Quarterly, February 2014. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/sustainability-and-resource-productivity/our-insights/remaking-the-industrial-economy. Accessed 13 Nov 2018
  33. Norwegian Government (2016) Kjente ressurser – uante muligheter (Known resources- unknown possibilities; In Norwegian, with English summary) https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/32160cf211df4d3c8f3ab794f885d5be/nfd_biookonomi_strategi_uu.pdf. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  34. Oelofse M, Jensen LS, Magid J (2013) The implications of phasing out conventional nutrient supply in organic agriculture: Denmark as a case. Org Agric 3:41–55.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-013-0045-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Okano T, Kimura T, Tsugawa N, Fujiwara M, Yamamoto M, Kobayashi T (1994) Bioavailability of calcium from bovine-bone-marrow calcium (BBMCa) and calcium carbonate in vitamin D-deficient rats. Food Chem 51:61–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90048-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Paull J (2006) The farm as an organism: the foundational idea of organic agriculture. Elementals: J Bio-Dyn Tasmania 80:14–18 http://orgprints.org/10138/. Accessed 13 Nov 2018Google Scholar
  37. Pearce DW, Turner RK (1990) Economics of natural resources and the environment. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead, HertsGoogle Scholar
  38. Rahmann G, Ardakani RM, Bàrberi P et al (2017) Organic agriculture 3.0 is innovation with research. Org Agric 7:169–197.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-016-0171-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Singh RP, Agrawal M (2008) Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge. Waste Manag 28:347–358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2006.12.01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smith VH (2003) Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems - a global problem. Environ Sci Pollut Res 10:126–139.  https://doi.org/10.1065/espr2002.12.142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Steiner R (1924) Agriculture course, the birth of the biodynamic method, eight lectures and discussions. Skylark Books, HastingsGoogle Scholar
  42. Torrijos M (2016) State of development of biogas production in Europe. Procedia Environ Sci 35:881–889.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tveit GM (2014) Enzymatic hydrolysis of chicken rest raw material. https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/246099. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  44. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2009) Agriculture at a crossroads. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD), Synthesis report. ISBN 978-1-59726-550-8 https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7862/-Agriculture%20at%20a%20crossroads%20-%20Synthesis%20report-2009Agriculture_at_Crossroads_Synthesis_Report.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y. Accessed 4 Aug 2018
  45. Verhoog H, Matze M, Lammerts van Bueren E, Baars T (2003) The role of the concept of the natural (naturalness) in organic farming. J Agric Environ Ethics 16:29–49.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021714632012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Verhoog H, Lammerts van Bueren E, Matze M, Baars T (2007) The value of ‘naturalness’ in organic agriculture. NJAS-Wagen J Life Sc 54:333–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1573-5214(07)80007-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vocabulary (2018) Chemical change. https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/chemical%20change. Accessed 13 Nov 2018
  48. Ward AM, Holden NM, White EP, Oldfield TL (2016) The “circular economy” applied to the agriculture (livestock production) sector – discussion paper. Workshop on the sustainability of the EU’s livestock production systems, September 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/image/document/2016-48/ward_-_circular_economy_applied_to_the_livestock_production_sector___brussels__2_40231.pdf. Accessed 3 Dec 2018
  49. Wollmann I, Möller K (2015) Assessment of alternative phosphorus fertilizers for organic farming: sewage precipitation products. Dossier/fact sheet. First edition. Universität Hohenheim, ETH Zürich, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Bioforsk, BOKU, Newcastle University, University of Copenhagen. http://orgprints.org/28142/. Accessed 4 Aug 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Centre for Organic AgricultureTingvollNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO)TingvollNorway

Personalised recommendations