Review of Philosophy and Psychology

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 381–400 | Cite as

Predicting the Self: Lessons from Schizophrenia

  • Valerie Gray HardcastleEmail author


Newly developed Bayesian perspectives on schizophrenia hold out the promise that a common underlying mechanism can account for many, if not all, of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. If this is the case, then understanding how schizophrenic minds go awry could shine light on how healthy minds maintain a sense of self. This article investigates this Bayesian promise by examining whether the approach can indeed account for the difficulties with self-awareness experienced in schizophrenia. While I conclude that it cannot, I nonetheless maintain that understanding how the self breaks down in schizophrenia tells us much about how and why the self functions in normal human circumstances. I proceed first by recounting in some detail a Bayesian interpretation of perception, schizophrenia, and self-awareness, as well as some of the empirical data supporting this interpretation, then by exploring aspects of schizophrenia that this approach leaves out. I conclude by discussing what the “left out” aspects tell us about self-awareness, thereby (I hope) convincing the reader that studying patients with schizophrenia is indeed a useful avenue for understanding awareness of self.


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Philosophy, Psychology, and Psychiatry & Behavioral Neuroscience, Scholar-in-Residence, Weaver Institute for Law and PsychiatryUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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