Control of Non-migrating Bar Morphodynamics on Survival of Populus nigra Seedlings during Floods
Populus nigra seedling survival to flood stresses during their first stage of development was analyzed in the Loire River, France. We related bar dynamics (assessed from bathymetrical, topographical, flow velocity, scour chains, and sediment grain size surveys) to seedling survival. The study highlights (i) the influence of flood succession and flood stages on seedling survival after establishment, (ii) the spatial distribution of fluvial processes at the bar scale and their relative contribution to seedling mortality, (iii) threshold values for each process. At the bar scale, 28% of mortality is explained by uprooting associated with erosion of sediments. To a lesser extent, uprooting by drag force applied on the stems and burying by sediments also contribute to seedling mortality. The majority of seedling mortality is ultimately due to a combination of erosion and burial (50.6%) during flood events. The relative contribution of each process depends on the combination and phasing of erosion and deposition processes, sediment supply (quantity and grain size), and flow velocity governed by hydrological variations. Based on the results of this study we hypothesize that the survival of seedlings during floods may be a function of local processes involved in bar dynamics.
KeywordsNon-migrating bar Uprooting Burial Riparian vegetation Seedlings
This study is part of the Ph.D. thesis of the first author and is funded by the Masterplan Plan Loire Grandeur Nature - FEDER (Presage n°34971), Agence de l’Eau Loire-Bretagne (n° 100392601), Etablissement Public Loire (11-DR-RD-015) and Région Centre Val de Loire. It also benefited of the support by BioMareau II project (Feder 2016-EX00604 - Prog 9086 - Région Centre Val de Loire: 2016-00108343) and the Program ARD Intelligence des Patrimoines.
Michel Chantereau, Damien Hemeray (Réserve Naturelle Saint-Mesmin) and Thomas Carrière (DDT 45) are acknowledged for their valuable contributions. Y. Guerez and T. Handfus (CETU ELMIS – University of Tours) are thanked for their assistance during flood surveys. Other field investigations and grain size analysis were carried out with the help of J.P. Bakyono, I. Pene, M. Rincel (University of Tours). We thank S. Marin (INRA Val de Loire) for sharing her data on genetic structuration of seedling recruitment. O. Ursache (University of Tours) is acknowledged for his help during the analysis of data. The authors are grateful to the reviewers and the chief editor for their useful comments and suggestions that significantly improved the paper.
Wintenberger CL conception and design, data collection, analysis and conclusions, and manuscript preparation. Rodrigues S conception and design, data collection, conclusions and manuscript preparation. Bréhéret J-G and Villar data collection. Jugé P data collection. Tal M manuscript preparation. Dubois A analysis. Greulich S analysis and conclusions, and manuscript preparation.
- Bendix J, Stella JC (2013) Riparian vegetation and the fluvial environment: a biogeographic perspective. In: Shroder J Jr, Butler D, Hupp C (eds) Treatise on geomorphology, vol 12. Academic Press, SanDiegoGoogle Scholar
- Braatne JH, Rood SB, Heilman PE (1996) Life history, ecology and conservation of Riparian cottonwoods in North America. In: Stettler RF, Bradshaw HD, Heilman PE, Hinckley TM (eds) Biology of Populus and its implications for management and conservation, (Part I), Chapter 3. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp 57–85Google Scholar
- Chessel D, Dufour AB, Thioulouse J (2004) The ade4 package-I- one-table methods. R News 4:5–10Google Scholar
- Church MA, McLean DG, Wolcott JF (1987) River bed gravels: sampling and analysis. In: Thorne CR, Bathurst JC, Hey RD (eds) Sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers. Wiley, Chichester, pp 43–79Google Scholar
- Corenblit D, Baas ACW, Bornette G, Darrozes J, Delmotte S, Francis RA, Gurnell AM, Julien F, Naiman RJ, Steiger J (2011) Feedbacks between geomorphology and biota controlling earth surface processes and landforms: a review of foundation concepts and current understandings. Earth-Science Reviews 106:307–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Corenblit D, Steiger J, Gonzalez E, Gurnell AM, Charrier G, Darrozes J, Dousseau J, Julien F, Lambs L, Larrue S, Roussel E, Vautier F, Voldoire O (2013) The biogeomorphological life cycle of poplars during the fluvial biogeomorphological succession: a special focus on Populus nigra L. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39:546–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Freeman GE, Rahmeyer WH, Copeland RR (2000) Determination of resistance due to shrubs and woody vegetation. US Army corps of engineers, ERDC/CHL TR 00-25, 33 ppGoogle Scholar
- Hoerner SF (1965) Fluid-dynamic drag. Hoerner fluid dynamics, Bricktown, pp 452Google Scholar
- Jourdain C, Belleudy P, Tal M, Malavoi J-R (2017) Le rôle de l’hydrologie sur la destruction de la végétation dans le lit d’une rivière à galets aménagée : l’Isère en Combe de Savoie ». Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement 23 :3. https://doi.org/10.4000/geomorphologie.11761
- Parsons DR, Jackson PR, Czuba JA, Engel FL, Rhoads BL, Oberg KA, Best JL, Mueller DS, Johnson KK, Riley JD (2013) Velocity mapping toolbox (VMT): a processing and visualization suite for moving-vessel ADCP measurements. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38:1244–1260. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3367 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available online at https://www.R-project.org/
- Rodrigues S, Bréhéret J-G, Macaire JJ, Greulich S, Villar M (2007) In channel woody vegetation controls on sedimentary processes and the sedimentary record within alluvial environments: a modern example of an anabranch of the River Loire. France Sedimentology 54:223–242. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2006.00832.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seminara G, Tubino M (1989) Alternate bars and meandering: free, forced and mixed interactions. In: Ikeda S, Parker G (eds) River meandering. American Geophysical Union - water resources monographs 12, Washington, pp 267–320Google Scholar
- Wintenberger C (2015) Dynamique fluviale et végétation pionnière à Salicaceae en rivière sablo-graveleuse : Etudes in et ex situ de la survie des semis durant les premiers stades de la succession biogéomorphologique en Loire Moyenne. Dissertation, University of ToursGoogle Scholar