Mapping Water-Table Depths Over Time to Assess Desiccation of Groundwater-Dependent Ecosystems in the Netherlands
- 284 Downloads
During the past decades, groundwater-dependent ecosystems in the Netherlands have been threatened by a decline in the water-table level. However, information on water-table depths and changes in water-table depths is insufficient and outdated. For policy evaluation, spatially explicit and detailed information on water-table depths is required, especially in areas with groundwater-dependent ecosystems including wetlands. Some 35,000 observations of seasonal fluctuation characteristics of water-table depths in nature conservation areas were made since 1980 during soil surveys. These observations were derived from characteristics of the soil profile or from measurements in boreholes. These observations were used in a space-time geostatistical analysis to map the seasonal fluctuation of water-table depths between 1980 and 2007. First, systematic differences between different estimation modes used through the years were corrected. Next, observations were correlated with area-wide available ancillary data using multiple linear regression. Simple kriging was used to interpolate the resulting space-time residuals. Maps of the predicted mean spring water-table depths and the accuracy of these predictions were used to identify areas where the water-table is deeper than favorable. Changes of water-table depths on the national scale over the past 25 years were assessed, and recommendations were made to increase the accuracy of future predictions.
KeywordsAccuracy Nature conservation Seasonal fluctuation characteristics Space-time geostatistics Temporal trend
We thank the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality for funding this research as part of the Basic Research program for the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. We thank Arjen van Hinsberg, Guus Beugelink and Rien Pastoors for their involvement during the project, and Hans Visser, Dick Brus, and two anonymous reviewers who reviewed earlier versions of this manuscript.
- Bakkenes M, Zwart D de, Alkemade RM (2002) MOVE Nationaal model voor de vegetatie versie 3.2; Achtergronden en analyse van modelvarianten. (MOVE National model for vegetation version 3.2; Backgrounds and analysis of model variants) RIVM rapport 408657006/2002. In DutchGoogle Scholar
- Braat L, Amstel A van, Gerritsen A, Gool C van, Gremmen N, Groen C, Rolf H, Runhaar J, Wiertz J (1989) Verdroging van natuur en landschap in Nederland: Beschrijving en analyse (Man-induced drought of nature and landscape in the Netherlands: description and analysis). Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, ’s-Gravenhage. In DutchGoogle Scholar
- Goovaerts P (1997) Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Hoogland T, Runhaar J (2006) Neerschaling van de freatische grondwaterstand uit modelresultaten en de Gt-kaart. (Downscaling the phreatic groundwater depth using model results and the WTC-map), WOt-rapport 26, Wageningen. In DutchGoogle Scholar
- MNP (2005) Optimalisatie EHS; Ruimte, Milieu en Watercondities voor Duurzaam Behoud van Biodiversiteit (Optimalisation EHS; Space-, environmental- and water conditions for sustainable biodiversity conservation), Rapport 408768003, MNP, Bilthoven. In DutchGoogle Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2006) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org.
- Runhaar HJ, van Walsum PEV, Prins DAH (2002) Effects of climate and land use change on hydrological conditions and species composition in Dutch riverine grasslands (Calthion, Junco-Molinion). Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology 2:219–226Google Scholar
- Smith SD, Devitt DA, Sala A, Cleverly JR, Bush DE (1998) Water relations of riparian plants from warm desert regions. Wetlands 18:687–696Google Scholar
- Ten Cate JAM, Holst AF van, Kleijer H, Stolp J (1995) Handleiding bodemgeografisch onderzoek; richtlijnen en voorschriften Deel B: Grondwater. (Soil survey manual: guidelines and protocols, part B: groundwater) Technisch document 19B, DLO-Staring Centrum, Wageningen. In DutchGoogle Scholar
- van Delft SPJ, Holtland J, Runhaar JR, Mekkink P, Jansen PC (2003) Verdrogingskartering in natuurgebieden: Proefkartering Beekvliet. (Mapping desiccation in nature conservation areas: test area Beekvliet) Alterra-Rapport 566.2. In DutchGoogle Scholar
- van Delft SPJ, Runhaar JR, Hoogland T, Jansen PC (2002) Verdrogingskartering in natuurgebieden: Proefkartering Strijper Aa (Mapping desiccation in nature conservation areas: test area Strijper Aa), Alterra-Rapport 566.1. In Dutch.Google Scholar
- Van der Pouw BJA, Finke PA (1999) Development and perspective of soil survey in the Netherlands. In: Bullock P, Jones R, Montanarella L (eds) Soil resources of Europe. European soil bureau research report 6. Office for Official Pblications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar