Advertisement

A Comparative Study on the Effect of Upstream Trough on Intensity Changes of Two Types of Tropical Cyclones during Extratropical Transition

  • Yue Liao
  • Yongqing WangEmail author
  • Jialing Zhou
  • Xiunian Zhang
Original Article

Abstract

Based on the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) tropical cyclone (TC) database and the reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the post-transition intensifying tropical cyclones (ITC) and weakening tropical cyclones (WTC) which landed in China and underwent extratropical transition (ET) are discussed in this paper. The TCs with upper-level trough are selected in order to identify different effects of the trough on the ITC and the WTC. The dynamic composite analysis is applied to explore their structure characteristics, environment fields and dynamic diagnosis. Results show that affected by the South Asia high and the subtropical high, the trough of ITC (WTC) extends from northwest to southeast (northeast to southwest) in the ET process. Thus, the zonal wind shear of ITC drops off after ET due to the approach of trough and its northwest-southeast direction, while the zonal and total wind shears of WTC continue to increase because of the steering westerly flow at the upper level. In terms of the ITC, the cold air carried by the upper-level trough intrudes into TC inner area and mostly encircles the TC center, making the ITC characterized by a warm seclusion. While for the WTC, the cold air only wanders on the northwest side of TC without further intrusion. The upper-level divergence is also in favor of the ITC by the pumping influence. According to the diagnostic analysis of moist potential vorticity, the moist baroclinity can lead to changes in vertical vorticity to some extent. The vertical vorticity budget analysis further indicates that there is stronger and wider positive vorticity advection in the upper troposphere near the TC center for ITC. The contribution of the baroclinic term to the growth of vertical vorticity is more significant in ITC than WTC but it is also deeply influenced by the strength of upper-level trough.

Keywords

Tropical cyclone Extratropical transition Composite analysis Upstream trough Baroclinity Vorticity budget 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41875070, 41530427 and 41575040) and the Beijige Open Research Fund for Nanjing Joint Center of Atmospheric Research (NJCAR2018MS02) and the Science and Technology Program of Yunnan (2018BC007). The provisions of online data by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) tropical cyclone database and ECMWF are gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

13143_2019_136_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.6 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1664 kb)

References

  1. Atallah, E.H., Bosart, L.F.: The extratropical transition and precipitation distribution of hurricane Floyd (1999). Mon. Weather Rev. 131, 1063–1081 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baek, E.-H., Lim, G.-H., Kim, J.-H., et al.: Antecedent mid-tropospheric frontogenesis caused by the interaction between a tropical cyclone and midlatitude trough: a case study of typhoon Rusa (2002). Theor Appl Climatol. 118, 9–24 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bosart, L.F., Lackmann, G.M.: Postlandfall tropical cyclone reintensification in a weakly baroclinic environment: a case study of hurricane David (September 1979). Mon. Weather Rev. 123, 3268–3291 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Browning, K.A., Thorpe, A.J., Montani, A., et al.: Interactions of tropopause depressions with an extropical cyclone and sensitivity of forecasts to analysis errors. Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 2734–2755 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. Demirci, O., Tyo, J.S., Ritchie, E.A.: Spatial and spatiotemporal projection pursuit pechniques to predict the extratropical transition of tropical cyclone. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens. 45, 418–425 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Evans, J.L., Hart, R.E.: Objective indicators of the life cycle evolution of extratropical transition for Atlantic tropical cyclones. Mon. Weather Rev. 131, 909–925 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Harr, P.A., Elsberry, R.L.: Extratropical transition of tropical cyclones over the Western North Pacific. Part I: evolution of structural characteristics during the transition process. Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 2613–2633 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hart, R.E.: A cyclone phase space derived from thermal wind and thermal asymmetry. Mon. Weather Rev. 131, 585–616 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Klein, P.M., Harr, P.A., Elsberry, R.L.: Extratropical transition of Western North Pacific tropical cyclones: an overview and conceptual model of the transformation stage. Weather Forecast. 15, 373–395 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kofron, D.E., Ritchie, E.A., Tyo, J.S.: Determination of a consistent time for the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones. Part I: examination of existing methods for finding ``ET time. Mon. Weather Rev. 138, 4328–4343 (2010a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kofron, D.E., Ritchie, E.A., Tyo, J.S.: Determination of a consistent time for the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones. Part II: potential vorticity metrics. Mon. Weather Rev. 138, 4344–4361 (2010b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li Y.: A study on the sustaining mechanism of landfalling tropical cyclones[D]. Ph. D. thesis. Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology. (in Chinese) (2004)Google Scholar
  13. Li, K., Xu, H.-M.: The impacts of westerly upper – level trough on the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones landing over China and its possible mechanisms. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 36(3), 607–618 (2012) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  14. Li, Y., Chen, L.-S., Lei, X.-T.: Study on rainfall variation associated with typhoon Winnie (9711) during its extratropical transition process. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 37(3), 623–633 (2013) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  15. McTaggart-Cowan, R., Gyakum, J.R., Yau, M.K.: Sensitivity testing of extratropical transitions using potential vorticity inversions to modify initial conditions: hurricane earl case study. Mon. Weather Rev. 129, 1617–1636 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Niu, B.-S., Ding, Z.-Y., Wang, J.-S.: Development of an explosive cyclone and its relationship with moist potential vorticity. Trans Atmos Sci. 26(1), 8–16 (2003) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  17. Palmer, C. K., and Barnes, G. M., The effects of vertical wind shear as diagnosed by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data on northeast pacific hurricane intensity. Preprints, 25th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, San Diego, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 122–123 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. Park, D.-S.R., Ho, C.-H., Kim, J.-H., et al.: Highlighting socio-economic damages caused by weakened tropical cyclones in the Republic of Korea. Nat. Hazards. 82, 1301–1315 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ritchie, E.A., Elsberry, R.L.: Simulations of the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones: contributions by the midlatitude upper-level trough to reintensification. Mon. Weather Rev. 131, 2112–2128 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ritchie, E.A., Elsberry, R.L.: Simulations of the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones: phasing between the upper-level trough and tropical cyclones. Mon.wea.rev. 135, 862–876 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shapiro, M. A., Keyser D.,: Fronts, jet streams and the tropopause. Extratropical Cyclones, the Eric Palmen Memorial Volume, C. W. Newton and E. O. Holopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 167–191 (1990)Google Scholar
  22. Shou, S.-W.: Theory and application of potential vorticity. Meteor Mon. 36(3), 9–18 (2010) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  23. Shou, S.-W., Li, Y.-H.: Isentropic potential vorticity analysis of the mesoscale cyclone development in a heavy rain process. Acta Meteor Sinica. 59(5), 560–568 (2001) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  24. Thorncroft, C.D., Jones, S.C.: The extratropical transitions of hurricanes Felix and Iris in 1995. Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 947–972 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wu, G.-X.: Comparison between the complete-form vorticity equation and the traditional vorticity equation. Acta Meteor Sinica. 59(4), 385–392 (2001) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  26. Wu, G.-X., Cai, Y.-P.: Moist potential vorticity and slantwise vorticity development. Acta Meteor Sinica. 53(4), 387–405 (1995) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  27. Wu, G.-X., Cai, Y.-P.: Vertical wind shear and down-sliding slantwise vorticity development. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 21(3), 273–282 (1997) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  28. Wu, G.-X., Liu, H.-Z.: Complete form of vertical vorticity tendency equation and slantwise vorticity development. Acta Meteor Sinica. 57(1), 1–15 (1999) in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  29. Ying, J., Chen, G.-H., Huang, R.-H.: Comparison of intensity changes of western North Pacific tropical cyclones during extratropical transition. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 37(4), 773–785 (2013) in ChineseGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Meteorological Society and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yue Liao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Yongqing Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Jialing Zhou
    • 4
    • 5
  • Xiunian Zhang
    • 6
  1. 1.Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological DisastersNanjing University of Information Science & TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of EducationNanjing University of Information Science & TechnologyNanjingChina
  3. 3.School of Atmospheric SciencesNanjing University of Information Science & TechnologyNanjingChina
  4. 4.Nanjing Joint Center of Atmospheric ResearchNanjingChina
  5. 5.Jiangsu Research Institute of Meteorological SciencesNanjingChina
  6. 6.Yunnan Meteorological ObservatoryKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations