Characteristics of Annual and Seasonal Trends of Rainfall and Temperature in Iraq

  • Saleem A. SalmanEmail author
  • Shamsuddin Shahid
  • Tarmizi Ismail
  • Kamal Ahmed
  • Eun-Sung Chung
  • Xiao-Jun Wang
Original Article


Changes in the temperature and precipitation have significantly affected water resources and agricultural productions in many countries across the world. The objective of the present study is to analyze the changing patterns of annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature in Iraq for the period 1961–2010. Monthly gridded precipitation and temperature data of Global precipitation climate center (GPCC) and climate research unit (CRU) respectively having a spatial resolution of 0.5° were used in this study to show the spatial pattern in trends. The rate of change in rainfall and temperature was estimated using Sen’s slope method while the significance of change was confirmed using Mann-Kendal test (MK) and the modified Mann-Kendall test (mMK). The results revealed large differences in the number of grid points showing significant changes in rainfall and temperature using MK and mMK methods. The mMK method revealed that the annual rainfall is decreasing at a rate of −1.0 to −5.0 mm/year in the northwest part of Iraq. The seasonal precipitations were found to decrease in spring (−0.4 to −2.56 mm/year) and winter (−0.4 to −2.0 mm/year), increase in summer (0.06 to 0.21 mm/year) at a few grid points and no change in autumn. On the other hand, a sharp rise in annual average of daily mean (0.42 to 0.64 °C/decade), maximum (0.39 to 0.65 °C/decade) and minimum (0.36 to 0.69 °C/decade) temperature was observed.


Temperature Precipitation Modified Mann-Kendal test Gridded climate data Iraq 



The authors are grateful to Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to support this research through Research University Grant (RUG) no. 19H44 and 13H07.


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Copyright information

© Korean Meteorological Society and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil EngineeringSeoul National University of Science and TechnologySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic EngineeringNanjing Hydraulic Research InstituteNanjingChina

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