Quantitative Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography for Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients
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The purpose of the study was to investigate the usefulness of quantitative salivary single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) using Tc-99m pertechnetate in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS).
We retrospectively reviewed quantitative salivary SPECT/CT data from 95 xerostomic patients who were classified as either SS (n = 47, male:female = 0:47, age = 54.60 ± 13.16 y [mean ± SD]) or non-SS (n = 48, male:female = 5:43, age = 54.94 ± 14.04 y) by combination of anti-SSA/Ro antibody, labial salivary gland biopsy, unstimulated whole saliva flow rate, and Schirmer’s test. Thyroid cancer patients (n = 43, male:female = 19:24, age = 46.37 ± 12.13 y) before radioactive iodine therapy served as negative controls. Quantitative SPECT/CT was performed pre-stimulatory 20 min and post-stimulatory 40 min after injection of Tc-99m pertechnetate (15 mCi). The %injected dose at 20 min and the %excretion between 20 and 40 min were calculated for parotid and submandibular glands, generating four quantitative parameters: %parotid uptake (%PU), %submandibular uptake (%SU), %parotid excretion (%PE), and %submandibular excretion (%SE). The most useful parameter for SS diagnosis was investigated.
The uptake parameters (%PU and %SU) were significantly different among the SS, non-SS, and negative controls (p = 0.005 for %PU and p < 0.001 for %SU, respectively), but the excretion parameters (%PE and %SE) were not (p > 0.05 for both). The %PU and %SU were significantly lower in SS than in the negative controls and non-SS (p < 0.05 for all pair-wise comparisons). Additionally, the %SU was significantly lower in non-SS than in the negative controls (p < 0.05). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed that the %SU had the greatest area-under-the curve of 0.720 (95% confidence interval = 0.618–0.807). Using the optimal cut-off value of %SU ≤ 0.07%, SS was identified with a sensitivity of 70.21% and a specificity of 70.83%.
Reduced submandibular uptake of Tc-99m pertechnetate at 20 min (%SU) was proved useful for the diagnosis of SS. Quantitative salivary gland SPECT/CT holds promise as an objective imaging modality for assessment of salivary dysfunction and may facilitate accurate classification of SS.
KeywordsSjögren’s syndrome Single-photon emission computed tomography Computed tomography Tc-99m pertechnetate Quantitation
This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and funded by the Ministry of Education (2015R1D1A1A01059146).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
Jihyun Kim, Hyunjong Lee, Hwanhee Lee, Ji-In Bang, Yeon-koo Kang, Sungwoo Bae, Yoo Sung Song, and Won Woo Lee declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The study was approved by an institutional review board (IRB) and was performed in accordance with the ethical standards set in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
The need for patient’s informed consent was waived by the IRB.
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