Tc-99m and Fluorescence-Labeled Anti-Flt1 Peptide as a Multimodal Tumor Imaging Agent Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Receptor 1
We developed a Tc-99m and fluorescence-labeled peptide, Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI, to target tumor cells, and evaluated the diagnostic performance as a dual-modality imaging agent for tumor in a murine model.
TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI was synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. Radiolabeling of TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI with Tc-99m was done using ligand exchange via tartrate. Binding affinity and in vitro cellular uptake studies were performed. Gamma camera imaging, biodistribution, and ex vivo imaging studies were performed in murine models with U87MG tumors. Tumor tissue slides were prepared and analyzed with immunohistochemistry using confocal microscopy.
After radiolabeling procedures with Tc-99m, Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI complexes were prepared in high yield (> 95%). The Kd of Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI determined by saturation binding was 29.5 ± 4.5 nM. Confocal microscopy images of U87MG cells incubated with TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI showed strong fluorescence in the cytoplasm. Gamma camera imaging revealed substantial uptake of Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI in tumors. Tumor uptake was effectively blocked by the co-injection of an excess concentration of GNQWFI. Specific uptake of Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI was assessed by biodistribution, ex vivo imaging, and immunohistochemistry stain studies.
In vivo and in vitro studies revealed substantial and specific uptake of Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI in tumor cells. Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI could be a good candidate dual-modality imaging agent for tumors.
KeywordsVascular endothelial growth factor-receptor 1 Anti-Flt1 peptide Tc-99m TAMRA Multimodal imaging
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dae-Weung Kim declares that this work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIP: Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) (2017R1C1B2001886). Myoung Hyoun Kim and Seul-Gi Kim declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
The institutional review board of our institute approved this retrospective study, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived.