Role of Knowledge Management in Enhancing the Entrepreneurial Ecosystems Through Corporate Entrepreneurship and Strategic Intent in High-tech Firms

  • Broto BhardwajEmail author


The paper studies the role of knowledge management in enhancing the entrepreneurial ecosystem using knowledge management, co-governance, and co-management in high-tech firms. All these factors are important variables defining entrepreneurial ecosystem. The key drivers of knowledge management include intelligence generation and intelligence dissemination which are also critical variables of market intelligence for developing new products and creating new business creation as strategic business units in the entrepreneurial firm. The objective of the paper is to understand the dynamics of the components of sustainable entrepreneurial ecosystems, with an emphasis on the role of knowledge creation, diffusion, and application across the spectrum of high-tech organizations and their co-governance process and co-management processes.The methodology includes an empirical study based on data collected from all over India. More than 381 data were collected and analyzed using SPSS. Factor analysis and reliability analysis were used to find the reliability of questionnaire. Regression and correlation were used to analyze the influence of knowledge management processes on entrepreneurial ecosystem. Also, we analyzed the role of management support in facilitating culture for enabling corporate entrepreneurship. Response rate was 19.25%. The detailed case study of NASA and IBM was also undertaken to study the knowledge management system (Bixler & Stankosky, 2005). The paper undertakes the management approach to shed new light on the evolving role of knowledge on newbusiness creation and new product development. On the basis of analysis, it was found that entrepreneurial ecosystem includes the entrepreneurial proactiveness which is significantly influenced by lifecycle and strategic intent of high-tech firms. Moreover, leadership, knowledge management, and management support are the other components of entrepreneurial ecosystem that may influence the culture of innovation for facilitating entrepreneurship. The study also showed that culture is also influenced by the degree of involvement of the employees in pursuing the new ventures.The global implications of the paper include the advancement in the theory and body of knowledge in terms of development of correlation between the components of entrepreneurial ecosystem and knowledge management and strategic intent. The present study identifies the role of knowledge management in enhancing entrepreneurial culture, innovation, and new business creation within the firm to make it more competitive in the global arena. The concept of using intelligence generation and dissemination of knowledge through knowledge management systems has not been studied before with respect to entrepreneurial ecosystem and competitiveness, and there was a huge gap in the literature and managerial practice. Earlier studies have not identified the processes of knowledge management such as role of intelligence generation and dissemination and especially how the companies are implementing these processes. Interestingly, the study also covers the process of knowledge management implementation by describing such processes in NASA and IBM. For explaining these processes, the author has studied the case study of NASA and IBM which is the major contribution toward the managerial and research contributions through this study. The study balances practice with application and theory with the underlying concepts.


Innovation Knowledge management Entrepreneurial ecosystems Corporate entrepreneurship Market orientation High-tech Firms 



  1. Ackerman, J. (2004). Co-governance for accountability: beyond “exit” and “voice”. World Development, 32(3), 447–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amidon, D. (2002). The innovation superhighway. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  3. Amidon, D. M., Formica, P., & Mercier-Laurent, E. (2004). Knowledge economics: emerging principles, practices and policies. Tartu University Press ISBN: 9985569393.Google Scholar
  4. Anantatmula, V. S. (2005). Knowledge Management Criteria. In M. Stankoshy (Ed.), Creating the discipline of knowledge management: the latest in university research (pp. 171–188). Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersson, T., Formica, P., & Curley, M. G. (2010a). Knowledge-driven entrepreneurship: the key to social and economic transformation. Springer publications.Google Scholar
  6. Argote, L., Beckman, S., & Epple, D. (1990). The persistence and transfer of learning in industrial settings. Management Science, 36, 1750–1763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armitage, D., Berkes, F., & Doubleday, N. (Eds.). (2007). Adaptive co-management:collaboration, learning, and multi-level governance. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  8. Arnold, J. S., & Fernandez-Gimenez, M. (2007). Building social capital through participatory research: an analysis of collaboration on Tohono O’odham tribal rangelandsin Arizona. Society and Natural Resources, 20, 481–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayles, B. G., Bell, R., & Hoyt, A. (2007). Adaptive fisheries co-management in the western Canadian Arctic. In D. Armitage, F. Berkes, & N. Doubleday (Eds.), Adaptive co-management (pp. 125–150). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  10. Beinhocker, E. D. (2006). The origin of wealth. Evolution, complexity, and the radical remaking of economics. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  11. Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (2003). (Eds.) Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press. (© Cambridge University Press 2003).Google Scholar
  12. Berkes, F. (2009). Evolution of co-management: Role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(2009), 1692–1702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhardwaj, B. R. & Momaya, K. (2006). Role of organizational flexibility for corporate entrepreneurship: Case study of FedEx Corporation, Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 7(1/2), 37–44.Google Scholar
  14. Bhardwaj, B. R. (2016). Role of green policy on sustainable supply chain management: a model for implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR). Benchmarking: An International Journal, 23(2), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhardwaj, B. R. (2018). Can education empower women through entrepreneurial marketing: A model for upliftment of community services. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 12(1), 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bixler, C. H. (2005). Developing a foundation for a successful knowledge management system. In M. Stankoshy (Ed.), Creating the discipline of knowledge management: The Latest in University Research (pp. 51–65). Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bollinger, A. S., & Smith, R. D. (2001). Managing organizational knowledge as a strategic asset. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(1), 8–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bolloju, N., Khalifa, M., & Turban, E. (2002). Integrating knowledge management into enterprise environments for the next generation decision support. Decision Support Systems, 33(2), 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Capistrano, D., Samper, K. C., Lee, M. J., & Raudsepp-Hearne, C. (Eds.). (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: multiscale assessments (Vol. 4). Washington DC: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and Island Press Available from: Scholar
  20. Carayannis, E. G. (1999). Fostering synergies between information technology and managerial and organizational cognition: the role of knowledge management. Technovation, 19(4), 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carayannis, E. G. (2013). Innovation, technology, and knowledge management. Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell D. F. J. (2009). 'Mode 3'and'Quadruple Helix': toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem. International journal of technology management, 46(3-4), 201–234Google Scholar
  23. Carayannis, E. G., & Kaloudis, A. (2009). A time for action and a time to lead: democratic capitalism and a new ‘new deal’for the US and the World in the twenty-first century. Japan Economic Currents, 71,6–10.Google Scholar
  24. Carayannis, Elias G. (2016). Innovation, technology, and knowledge management. ISSN: 2197-5698.Google Scholar
  25. Carayannis, E. G., & Chanaron J-J (2007). Leading and managing creators, inventors, and innovators: the art, science, and craft of fostering creativity, triggering invention, and catalyzing innovation and knowledge management.Google Scholar
  26. Carlsson, L., & Berkes, F. (2005a). Co-management: concepts and methodological implications. Journal of Environmental Management, 75, 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlsson, L., & Berkes, F. (2005b). Co-management: concepts and methodological implications. Journal of Environmental Management, 75, 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cash, D. W., & Moser, S. C. (2000). Linking global and local scales: designing dynamic assessment and management processes. Global Environmental Change, 10, 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Castro, A. P., & Nielsen, E. (2001). Indigenous people and co-management: implications for conflict management. Environmental Science and Policy, 4, 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chuenpagdeea, R., & Jentoft, S. (2007). Step zero for fisheries co-management: What precedes implementation. Marine Policy, 31(6), 657–668.Google Scholar
  31. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), Special Issue: Technology, Organizations, and Innovation), 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Covin, J. G. & Miles, M. P. (1999) Corporate Entrepreneurship and the Pursuit of Competitive Advantage, 23(3): 47–63.Google Scholar
  33. Curley, M., & Formica, P. (2013). The Experimental Nature of New Venture Creation: Capitalizing on Open Innovation 2.0, Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management, Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
  34. D’Atri, A., & Sacca, D. (2010). Information systems: people, organizations, institutions, and technologies. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Davenport, T., & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  36. Davidson-Hunt, I. J., & O’Flaherty, R. M. (2007). Researchers, indigenous peoples and place-based learning communities. Society and Natural Resources, 20, 291–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Demsetz, H. (1991). The theory of the firm revisited. In O. E. Williamson & S. G. Winter (Eds.), The nature of the firm (pp. 159–178). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Drucker, P. (1993). Knowledge management and process performance. Journal of Knowledge Management, 3(2), 143–157.Google Scholar
  39. El Sawy, O.A., Eriksson, I., Carlsson, S.A., & Raven, A., (1997). Understanding the nature of shared knowledge creation spaces around business processes: an international investigation. Paper presented at the Carnegie Bosch Institute Conference on Knowledge in International Corporations, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  40. Feinstein, J. S. (2017). The creative development of fields: learning, creativity, paths, implications. Journal of Knowledge Economy, 8–23.Google Scholar
  41. Figallo, C. (2002). Building the knowledge management network—best practices: tools and techniques for putting conversation to work. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Elmqvist, T., et al. (2002). Resilience for sustainable development:building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. In RainbowSeries 3. Paris: International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU).Google Scholar
  43. Frappaolo, C. (2002). Knowledge management. Oxford: Capstone Publishing Ltd..Google Scholar
  44. Gelcich, S., Edward-Jones. G., Kaiser, M. J., & Castilla, J. C. (2006). Co-management Policy Can Reduce Resilience in Traditionally Managed Marine Ecosystems, Ecosystems, 9, 951966.Google Scholar
  45. Grant, R. M. (1996). Prospering in dynamically competitive environments: organizational capability as knowledge integration. Organization Science, 7, 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gupta, A., & Govindarajan, V. (2000). Knowledge flows within multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 473–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hahn, T., Olsson, P., Folke, C., & Johansson, K. (2006). Trust building, knowledge generation and organizational innovations: the role of a bridging organization for adaptive co-management of a wetland landscape around Kristianstad, Sweden. Human Ecology, 34, 573–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hair, J. F. Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis Seventh Edition, person publications.Google Scholar
  49. Holtskog, H. (2017a). Forms of innovation-insights from product development. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 8, 63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holtskog, H. (2017b). Defining the characteristics of an expert in a social context through subjective evaluation. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 8(63), 1014–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88–7115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ivanova, I., Strand, Ø., & Leydesdorff, L. (2017). The Swedish system of innovation: regional synergies in a knowledge-based economy. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 51(3), 963–988.Google Scholar
  53. Kalai, M., & Zghidi, N. (2017). Foreign Direct investment, trade, and economic growth in MENA countries: empirical analysis using ARDL bounds testing approach. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 1–25.Google Scholar
  54. Kendrick, A. (2003). Caribou co-management in northern Canada: fostering multiple ways of knowing. In F. Berkes, J. Colding, & C. Folke (Eds.), Navigating Socialecological Systems (pp. 241–267). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kofinas, G. P., Herman, S. J., & Meek, C. (2007). In D. Armitage (Ed.), Novel problems require novel solutions: innovation as an outcome of adaptive co-management.Google Scholar
  56. Kooiman, J. (2003). Governing as Governance, Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  57. Kothari, C.R. (1985). Research Methodology—Methods and Techniques. Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  58. Kruse, J., Klein, D., Braund, S., Moorehead, L., & Simeone, B. (1998). Co-management of natural resources: a comparison of two caribou management systems. Human Organization, 57, 447–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leydesdorff, L. (2012). The triple helix, quadruple helix, and an N-tuple of helices: explanatory models for analyzing the knowledge-based economy? Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 3, 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Liebowitz, J. (1999). Key ingredients to the success of an organization’s knowledge management strategy. Knowledge and Process Management, 6(1), 37–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lopes, J. N. M., & Farinha, L. (2017). Measuring the performance of innovation and entrepreneurship networks. Journal of Knowledge Economy, 9(2), 402–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Luttrell, A., Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & Wagner, B. (2016). Making it moral: Merely labeling an attitude as moral increases its strength. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 65, 82–93.Google Scholar
  63. Mahanty, S. (2002). Conservation and development interventions as networks: the case of the India eco-development project. World Development, 30, 1369–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Matricano, D. (2010). Achieving and sustaining new knowledge development in high-expectation start-ups. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 1–22.Google Scholar
  65. Matricano, D., Guadalupi, L., AnielloTutore, V., Andreottola, F., & Sorrentino, M. (2012). Essays in management, economics and ethics: the creation of academic spin-offs: evidences from Italy. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  66. Merlyn, P. R., & Välikangas, L. (1998). From information technology to knowledge technology: taking the user into consideration. Journal of Knowledge Management, 2(2), 28–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mishra, A. K. (1996). Organizational Responses to Crisis: The Centrality of Trust, in Kramer, Roderick M. and Thomas Tyler (Eds.) Trust In Organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 261–287.Google Scholar
  68. Momaya, K. (1998). Evaluating International Competitiveness at the Industry Level, Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 23(2), 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Morrissey, S. (2005). The design and implementation of effective knowledge management systems. Center for Technological Innovation of Wharton School: Master’s Thesis.Google Scholar
  70. Nadasdy, P. (2003). Re-evaluating the co-management success story. Arctic, 56, 367–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nayak, P.T., & Berkes, F. (2008). Politics of Co-Optation: Community Forest Management Versus Joint Forest Management in Orissa, India, Environmental Management, 41, 707–718.Google Scholar
  72. Nguyen, Q. T. N., & Nguyen, T. H. (2008). The critical role of knowledge management in achieving and sustaining organisational competitive advantage. International Business Research, 2(3), 1–16.Google Scholar
  73. Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company. How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Olsson, P., Galaz, V., & Boonstra, W. J. (2014). Sustainability transformations: a resilience perspective. Ecology and Society 19(4), 1.Google Scholar
  76. Olsson, P., & Folke, C. (2001). Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: a study of Lake Racken watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems, 4, 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ostrom, E. (2005). Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Penrose. (1959). An evaluation of management system tool part 1. Journal of Knowledge Management, 18(16), 1075–1100.Google Scholar
  79. Pentland, B. T. (1995). Information systems and organizational learning: the social epistemology of organizational knowledge systems, accounting. Management and Information Technologies, 5(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Peters, B. G., & Pierre, J. (2000). Citizens Versus the New Public Manager: The Problem of Mutual Empowerment. Administration & Society, 32(1), 9–28.Google Scholar
  81. Plummer R., Fitzgibbon J. (2004). Co-management of natural resources: a proposed framework, Environmental Management, 33(6), 876–85.Google Scholar
  82. Plummer, R., & Armitage, D. (2007). Crossing boundaries, crossing scales: the evolution of environment and resource co-management. Geography Compass, 1(4), 834–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Prahalad, C. K. (2012). Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1), 6–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Raudeliūnienė, J., Meidutė-Kavaliauskienė, I., & Vileikis, K. (2016). Evaluation of factors determining the efficiency of knowledge sharing process in the Lithuanian National Defence System. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 7(4), 842–857.Google Scholar
  85. Reid, W. V., Berkes, F., Wilbanks, T., & Capistrano, D. (2006). Bridging scales and knowledge systems: linking global science and local knowledge in assessments. Washington DC: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and Island Press.Google Scholar
  86. Sanchez, R. (2005). Knowledge management and organizational learning: fundamental for theory concepts and practice. Working Paper Series. Lund Institute of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  87. Shapiro, C., & Verian, H. (1999). Information rules. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  88. Stănculescu, O., Varvari, Ş., & Torok, G. (2013). The role of knowledge management within the clusters of the North-West region of India. Managerial Challenges of the Contemporary Society, 2013(6), 122–127.Google Scholar
  89. Stein, E. W., & Zwass, V. (1995). Actualizing organizational memory with information systems. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 85–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sungkur, R. K., & Santally, M. I. (2017). Knowledge sharing for capacity building in open and distance learning (ODL): reflections from the African experience. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 1–17.Google Scholar
  91. Tan, S. S., Teo, H. H., Tan, B. C., & Wei, K. K. (1998). Developing a preliminary framework for knowledge management in organizations. In E. Hoadley & I. Benbasat (Eds.), Proceedings of the fourth Americas conference on information systems (pp. 629–631). Baltimore.Google Scholar
  92. van der Borgh, M., Cloodt, M., & Romme, G. L. (2012). Value creation by knowledge-based ecosystems: evidence from a field study. R&D Management, 42(2), 150–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vance, D. and Eynon, J. (1998). On the requirements of knowledge transfer using IS: a schema whereby such transfer is enhanced. Baltimore, MD: Proceedings of the 4th AIS Americas Conference on Information Systems.Google Scholar
  94. Wigg, K. (1993). Knowledge management foundations. Arlington: Schema Press.Google Scholar
  95. Yin, D., & Lin, J. (2002). Sharing tacit knowledge in Asia. Knowledge Management Review, 5(3) July–August.Google Scholar
  96. Zeleny, M. (2000). “Knowledge vs information”, The IEBM handbook of information technology in business (pp. 162–168). London: Thomson Learning.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Entrepreneurship CellBharati Vidyapeeth Deemed UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations