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Phylogeny of three species groups of Rhinocricus Karsch, 1881 based on morphological characters (Diplopoda, Spirobolida, Rhinocricidae)

  • Patrícia Elesbão Silva RodriguesEmail author
  • Luiz Alexandre Campos
  • Ricardo Ott
  • Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues
Original Article
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Rhinocricus Karsch, 1881 has 207 species occurring mainly in the Americas, and more than 60 of them were described from Brazil. The genus was proposed based on the presence of dorsal scobinae on the prozonites. The present study evaluates the monophyly of three species groups previously proposed in Rhinocricus. We evaluated 39 morphological characters and included 30 species as terminal taxa, 9 of which are outgroups. We performed a parsimony analysis under implied weighting in TNT 1.5, obtaining the same most parsimonious tree topology with three optimal K values (5.992, 7.309, and 9.105). None of the three previously proposed species groups of Rhinocricus was recovered monophyletic. Rhinocricus (Erythocricus) sanguineostriatus Schubart, 1962 was recovered sister to all other species, and Argentocricus Verhoeff, 1941 resulted paraphyletic. The diagnostic morphological characters traditionally used to separate species groups, subgenera, and genera were not recovered as synapomorphies. Further investigation including a broader species sample is needed to establish robust relationship hypotheses between Argentocricus and the remainder species of Rhinocricus, thus identifying monophyletic groups in the genus and their synapomorphies.

Keywords

Millipedes Myriapoda Implied weighting Cladistics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Sergei Golovatch and an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments and corrections on this paper. We also thank Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha for providing access to the type material and to the technician Mauro Cardoso Júnior for all assistance in the Museu de Zoologia (MZSP).

Funding information

This study was partially supported by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES), Finance Code 001 (P.E.S. Rodrigues-88887.178957/2018-00).

Supplementary material

13127_2019_421_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 20 kb)
13127_2019_421_MOESM2_ESM.docx (37 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 36 kb)

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Copyright information

© Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratório de Diversidade e Sistemática de Arachnida, Programa de Pós-graduação em BiologiaUniversidade do Vale do Rio dos SinosSão LeopoldoBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de ZoologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Divisão de Pesquisa e Manutenção de Coleções Científicas, Departamento de Biodiversidade, Secretaria do Meio Ambiente e InfraestruturaMuseu de Ciências NaturaisPorto AlegreBrazil

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