Glutathione-dependent enzyme activities of peripheral blood mononuclear cells decrease during the winter season compared with the summer in normal-weight and severely obese adolescents
- 15 Downloads
Oxidative stress-related inflammation is known to play a vital role in obesity-associated cardiovascular disease, contributing to the early stages of the pathology as well as during its development. Therefore, it is of great interest to understand how obesity-induced stress modulates antioxidant enzyme activity during puberty. To this end, 27 severely obese adolescents (body mass index > 30, z-score > 3.7) were recruited from a paediatric weight management centre. Eighteen were recruited during the summer and nine in the winter. All underwent a 4-month weight loss programme consisting in diet and physical activity. Twenty normal-weight age-matched adolescents were recruited from the same geographical area to serve as controls. Blood samples were extracted, and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and erythrocytes. The enzymes studied included catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Severely obese adolescents presented lower PBMC-glutathione reductase activity than their corresponding normal-weight counterparts. In addition, glutathione-dependent activities tended to be lower in both groups during the winter compared with summer. These changes coincided with differences in circulating vitamin D levels. Results may suggest that season-dependent factors such as vitamin D could affect glutathione-dependent activities in severely obese as well as in normal-weight adolescents.
KeywordsAntioxidants Glutathione peroxidase Glutathione reductase Obesity Seasonality
VM and ER are members of CIBERobn (Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición CB12/03/30038) Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain.
This work was supported by Generalitat Valenciana under the PROMETEO grant 2016/006 to VM and ER and grants from the French Society of Vascular Medicine to AV and A P-M.
Compliance with ethical standards
The protocol was in accordance with national legal requirements and the Helsinki Declaration for research on human beings and approved by the Ethics Committee for People Protection of the South-Mediterranean Area-III (France).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors alone are responsible for the contents and writing of the paper.
- 6.Chainy GB, Paital B, Dandapat J (2016) An overview of seasonal changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence parameters in some invertebrate and vertebrate species. Scientifica (Cairo):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6126570
- 8.Dragsted LO, Pedersen A, Hermetter A, Basu S, Hansen M, Haren GR, Kall M, Breinholt V, Castenmiller JJM, Stagsted J, Jakobsen J, Skibsted L, Rasmussen SE, Loft S, Sandström B (2004) The 6-a-day study: effects of fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidants defense in healthy nonsmokers. Am J Clin Nutr 79:1060–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Goldberg DM, Spooner RJ (1985) Glutathione reductase. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Verlag-Chemie, Basel, pp 258–265Google Scholar
- 15.Li C, Feng F, Xiong X, Li R, Chen N (2016) Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity. J Sports Sci 12:1–6Google Scholar
- 16.Mansournia MA, Ostadmohammadi V, Doosti-Irani A, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Ferns G, Akbari H, Ghaderi A, Talari HR, Asemi Z (2018) The effects of vitamin D supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Horm Metab Res 50:429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.McCord JM, Fridovich I (1969) Superoxide dismutase. An enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). J Biol Chem 244:6049–6055Google Scholar
- 19.Michalickova D, Minic R, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Andjelkovic M, Dikic N, Kostic-Vucicevic M, Slanar O, Djordjevic B (2018) Changes in parameters of oxidative stress, immunity, and behavior in endurance athletes during a preparation period in winter. J Strength Cond Res:1. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002780
- 22.Ozgen IT, Tascilar ME, Bilir P (2014) Oxidative stress in obese children and its relation with insulin resistance. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 25:261–266Google Scholar
- 29.Tran B, Oliver S, Rosa J, Galassetti P (2012) Aspects of inflammation and oxidative stress in pediatric obesity and type1 diabetes. An overview of ten years of studies. Exp. Diab Res:683680Google Scholar