Glutathione-dependent enzyme activities of peripheral blood mononuclear cells decrease during the winter season compared with the summer in normal-weight and severely obese adolescents

  • David Montero
  • Nestor Vicente-Salar
  • Maria Herranz
  • Vicente Micol
  • Guillaume Walther
  • Antonia Pérez-Martín
  • Agnes Vinet
  • Enrique RocheEmail author
Original Article


Oxidative stress-related inflammation is known to play a vital role in obesity-associated cardiovascular disease, contributing to the early stages of the pathology as well as during its development. Therefore, it is of great interest to understand how obesity-induced stress modulates antioxidant enzyme activity during puberty. To this end, 27 severely obese adolescents (body mass index > 30, z-score > 3.7) were recruited from a paediatric weight management centre. Eighteen were recruited during the summer and nine in the winter. All underwent a 4-month weight loss programme consisting in diet and physical activity. Twenty normal-weight age-matched adolescents were recruited from the same geographical area to serve as controls. Blood samples were extracted, and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and erythrocytes. The enzymes studied included catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Severely obese adolescents presented lower PBMC-glutathione reductase activity than their corresponding normal-weight counterparts. In addition, glutathione-dependent activities tended to be lower in both groups during the winter compared with summer. These changes coincided with differences in circulating vitamin D levels. Results may suggest that season-dependent factors such as vitamin D could affect glutathione-dependent activities in severely obese as well as in normal-weight adolescents.


Antioxidants Glutathione peroxidase Glutathione reductase Obesity Seasonality 



VM and ER are members of CIBERobn (Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición CB12/03/30038) Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain.

Funding information

This work was supported by Generalitat Valenciana under the PROMETEO grant 2016/006 to VM and ER and grants from the French Society of Vascular Medicine to AV and A P-M.

Compliance with ethical standards

The protocol was in accordance with national legal requirements and the Helsinki Declaration for research on human beings and approved by the Ethics Committee for People Protection of the South-Mediterranean Area-III (France).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Disclosure statement

The authors alone are responsible for the contents and writing of the paper.


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Copyright information

© University of Navarra 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biochemistry and Cell Therapy Unit, Institute of BioengineeringUniversity Miguel HernandezAlicanteSpain
  2. 2.LaPEC, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of AvignonAvignonFrance
  3. 3.Institute of Molecular and Cell BiologyUniversity Miguel HernandezAlicanteSpain
  4. 4.CIBERobn (Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición CB12/03/30038)Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  5. 5.Vascular Medicine UnitNimes University HospitalNîmesFrance
  6. 6.Department of Applied Biology-Nutrition, Alicante Institute for Health and Biomedical Research (ISABIAL-FISABIO Foundation)University Miguel HernandezAlicanteSpain
  7. 7.Instituto de BioingenieríaUniversidad Miguel HernándezElcheSpain

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