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Strength training and aerobic exercise alter mitochondrial parameters in brown adipose tissue and equally reduce body adiposity in aged rats

  • Anand Thirupathi
  • Bruno Luiz da Silva Pieri
  • João Annibal Milano Peixoto Queiroz
  • Matheus Scarpatto Rodrigues
  • Gustavo de Bem Silveira
  • Daniela Roxo de Souza
  • Thais Fernandes Luciano
  • Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira
  • Claudio Teodoro De SouzaEmail author
Original Article
  • 200 Downloads

Abstract

With aging, there is a reduction in mitochondrial activity, and several changes occur in the body composition, including increased adiposity. The dysfunction of mitochondrial activity causes changes and adaptations in tissue catabolic characteristics. Among them, we can mention brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT’s main function is lipid oxidation for heat production, hence playing a role in adaptive thermogenesis induced by environmental factors such as exercise. It is known that exercise causes a series of metabolic changes, including loss body fat; however, there is still no consensus in the academic community about whether both strength and aerobic exercise equally reduces adiposity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of strength training and aerobic exercise regimes on adiposity, proteins regulating mitochondrial activity, and respiratory complexes in BAT of old rats. The rats were divided in two control groups: young control (YC; N = 5), and old control (OC; N = 5), and two exercise groups: strength training (OST; N = 5), and aerobic treadmill training (OAT; N = 5). Rats were subjected to an 8-week exercise regime, and their body composition parameters were evaluated (total body weight, adiposity index, and BAT weight). In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis proteins (PGC-1α, SIRT1, and pAMPK) and respiratory chain activity (complexes I, II/III, III, and IV) were evaluated. Results showed that OST and OAT exercise protocols significantly increased the mitochondrial regulatory molecules and respiratory chain activity, while body fat percentage and adiposity index significantly decreased. Taken together, both OST and OAT exercise increased BAT weight, activity of respiratory complexes, and regulatory proteins in BAT and equally reduced body adiposity.

Keywords

Aging Physical exercise Brown adipose tissue Adiposity Metabolism 

Abbreviations

AMPK

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

BAT

Brown adipose tissue

DTT

Dithiothreitol

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase

NRF-1

Nuclear respiratory factor 1

NRF-2

Nuclear respiratory factor 2

OAT

Aerobic treadmill training

OC

Old control

OST

Strength training

PGC-1α

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha

PMSF

Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SDS-PAGE

Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

SIRT1

Sirtuin 1

SNS

Sympathetic nervous system

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

YC

Young control

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, SC, Brazil. The Authors thanks professor Fernando Antonio Basile Colugnati of the Health Graduate Program of Juiz de Fora Federal University for statistical support.

Compliance with ethical standards

The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the local ethics committee according to the Guidelines for Animal Care and Experimentation (number 16/2013).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© University of Navarra 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anand Thirupathi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bruno Luiz da Silva Pieri
    • 1
  • João Annibal Milano Peixoto Queiroz
    • 1
  • Matheus Scarpatto Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Gustavo de Bem Silveira
    • 1
  • Daniela Roxo de Souza
    • 1
  • Thais Fernandes Luciano
    • 1
  • Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira
    • 1
  • Claudio Teodoro De Souza
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology, Graduate Program in Health SciencesUniversidade do Extremo Sul CatarinenseCriciúmaBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Molecular Iron metabolism, College of Life ScienceHebei Normal UniversityShijiazhuangChina
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine, Medicine SchoolFederal University of Juiz de ForaJuiz de ForaBrazil
  4. 4.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de MedicinaUniversidade Federal de Juiz de ForaJuiz de ForaBrazil

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