Dynamic Detection of Thrombolysis in Embolic Stroke Rats by Synchrotron Radiation Angiography

  • Liping Wang
  • Panting Zhou
  • Zhihao Mu
  • Xiaojie Lin
  • Lu Jiang
  • Zhuo Cheng
  • Longlong Luo
  • Zhiming Xu
  • Jieli Geng
  • Yongting Wang
  • Zhijun ZhangEmail author
  • Guo-Yuan YangEmail author
Original Article


A rodent model of embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion is used to mimic cerebral embolism in clinical patients. Thrombolytic therapy is the effective treatment for this ischemic injury. However, it is difficult to detect thrombolysis dynamically in living animals. Synchrotron radiation angiography may provide a novel approach to directly monitor the thrombolytic process and assess collateral circulation after embolic stroke. Thirty-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent the embolic stroke model procedure and were then treated with tissue plasminogen activator. The angiographic images were obtained in vivo by synchrotron radiation angiography. Synchrotron radiation angiography confirmed the successful establishment of occlusion and detected the thrombolysis process after the thrombolytic treatment. The time of thrombolytic recanalization was unstable during embolic stroke. The infarct volume increased as the recanalization time was delayed from 2 to 6 h (p < 0.05). The collateral circulation of the internal carotid artery to the ophthalmic artery, the olfactory artery to the ophthalmic artery, and the posterior cerebral artery to the middle cerebral artery opened after embolic stroke and manifested different opening rates (59%, 24%, and 75%, respectively) in the rats. The opening of the collateral circulation from the posterior cerebral artery to the middle cerebral artery alleviated infarction in rats with successful thrombolysis (p < 0.05). The cerebral vessels of the circle of Willis narrowed after thrombolysis (p < 0.05). Synchrotron radiation angiography provided a unique tool to dynamically detect and assess the thrombolysis process and the collateral circulation during thrombolytic therapy.


Angiography Collateral circulation Ischemia Thrombolysis Synchrotron radiation 



Anterior cerebral artery


Digital subtraction angiography


External carotid artery


Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion


Internal carotid artery


Internal diameter


Middle cerebral artery


Magnetic resonance imaging


Posterior cerebral artery

SD rats

Sprague–Dawley rats


Synchrotron radiation


Tissue plasminogen activator



The authors thank BL13W station at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility.


This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81771251, GYY; 81771244, ZJZ), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1300600), K. C. Wong Education Foundation (GYY), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (17ZR1413600, ZJZ).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liping Wang
    • 1
  • Panting Zhou
    • 2
  • Zhihao Mu
    • 3
  • Xiaojie Lin
    • 2
  • Lu Jiang
    • 2
  • Zhuo Cheng
    • 2
    • 4
  • Longlong Luo
    • 2
  • Zhiming Xu
    • 5
  • Jieli Geng
    • 6
  • Yongting Wang
    • 2
  • Zhijun Zhang
    • 2
    Email author
  • Guo-Yuan Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, School of MedicineShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Faculty of Basic Medical SciencesKunming Medical UniversityKunmingChina
  4. 4.Chongqing Health Information CenterChongqingChina
  5. 5.Department of NeurosurgeryShanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s HospitalShanghaiChina
  6. 6.Department of Neurology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, School of MedicineShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

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