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Translational Stroke Research

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 1–18 | Cite as

Hydrogel Scaffolds: Towards Restitution of Ischemic Stroke-Injured Brain

  • Aswathi Gopalakrishnan
  • Sahadev A. Shankarappa
  • G. K. RajanikantEmail author
Original Article
  • 153 Downloads

Abstract

Chronic brain injury following cerebral ischemia is a severe debilitating neurological condition, where clinical intervention is well known to decrease morbidity and mortality. Despite the development of several therapeutic strategies, clinical outcome in the majority of patients could be better improved, since many still face life-long neurological deficits. Among the several strategic options that are currently being pursued, tissue engineering provides much promise for neural tissue salvage and regeneration in brain ischemia. Specifically, hydrogel biomaterials have been utilized to docket biomolecules, adhesion motifs, growth factors, and other proneural cues for stable stem cell encapsulation. Here, we provide an overview of therapeutic applications of hydrogels in stroke treatment. Special focus is given to design considerations for generation of efficient hydrogel systems for neurological applications. Therapeutic applications of hydrogels in stroke as conducive microenvironments for stem cell transplantation and drug delivery have been discussed. Finally, we present our perspectives on clinical translation of hydrogels for neural tissue regeneration.

Keywords

Hydrogel Cerebral ischemia Stem cells Bioactive molecules Neuroregeneration 

Abbreviations

BBB

Blood blood-brain barrier

3D

Three-dimensional

CNS

Central nervous system

ECM

Extracellular matrix

HA

Hyaluronic acid

GAG

Glycoseaminoglycans

ECF

Extracellular fluid

PEG

poly(ethylene glycol)

N-CAM

Neural cell adhesion molecule

hNPCs

Human neural progenitor cells

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

BMP-4

Bone morphogenic protein-4

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

iPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells

iPSC-NPCs

iPSC-derived NPCs

RGD

Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid

ELPs

Elastin-like peptides

NSC

Neural stem cell

hPSC

Human pluripotent stem cell

hUVECs

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

CAM

Chorioallantoic membrane

E

Elastic modulus

NSPCs

Neural stem and progenitor cells

MAC

Methacrylamide chitosan

UBM

Urinary bladder matrix

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

PPy

polypyrrole

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

HepMA

Heparin methacrylate

PVA

poly(vinyl alcohol)

PEDOT

poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

pTS

paratoluenesulfonate

PANI

polyaniline

p(GMA)

poly(glyceryl methacrylate)

PHPMA

poly(N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)

PEGDA

poly(ethyleneglycol diacrylate)

LCST

Lower critical solution temperature

UCST

Upper critical solution temperature

pNIPAAm

poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)

PLLA

poly-l-(lactic acid)

PEO-PPO-PEO

poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide)

pNIPAAm-PEG

pNIPAAm grafted PEG

PUASM

poly(urethane amino sulfamethazine)

S-NBC

S-(2-nitrobenzyl)cysteine)

GRGDS

Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser

EPO

Erythropoietin

G-CSF

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

HAMC

Hyaluronan/methyl cellulose

PLGA

poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

PDMS-TEOS

polydimethysiloxane-tetraethoxysilane

Ang-1

Angiopoietin-1

ESC

Embryonic stem cell

PCL

polycaprolactone

GSH

Genipin cross-linked sericin hydrogel

hEnSCs

Human endometrial stem cells

SCs

Schwann cells

PFTBA

perfluorotributylamine

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PET

Positron emission tomography

BLI

Bioluminescence imaging

CEST

Chemical exchange saturation transfer

GLP-1

Glucagon-like peptide-1

STEP

Striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatase

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

hUC-MSCs

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

SDF-1α

Stromal cell-derived factor 1α

CS-GAG

Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan

SCI

Spinal cord injury

NGF

Nerve growth factor

hUTCs

Human umbilical tissue-derived cells

VM

Ventral midbrain

DA

Dopamine

BDNF-His

Hexahistidine peptide-linked recombinant BDNF

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PAA

poly(amidoamine)

TH

Tyrosine hydroxylase

GBM

Glioblastoma

GemC12

Gemcitabine

ICG

Indocyanine green

PEG-DMA

polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate

TMZ

Temozolomide

PC gel

poly(ethylene glycol)-g-chitosan hydrogel

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of BiotechnologyNational Institute of Technology CalicutCalicutIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research CenterAmrita Vishwa VidyapeethamKochiIndia

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