Acute severe mitral regurgitation with cardiogenic shock following balloon mitral valvuloplasty: echocardiographic findings and outcomes following surgery
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Acute severe mitral regurgitation (MR) is the commonest indication for emergency surgery following a balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). It results in hemodynamic compromise with cardiogenic shock and or acute pulmonary edema. These patients deteriorate fast and often require respiratory and critical care support, followed by urgent mitral valve replacement (MVR). We analyzed the data of 1224 BMV procedures done over the 18-year period. We had 85 patients (6.9%) with acute severe MR and cardiogenic shock. The clinical profile, echocardiographic features and operative findings were studied. The echocardiography scores were compared for association with occurrence of MR. The immediate and long-term clinical outcomes of these acutely sick patients were studied. Of the 85 patients, 84 underwent MVR. Anterior mitral leaflet tear was observed in 65 (75%) cases, para-commissural with annular tear in 8 (9.4%), Chordal injury in 7 (8%) and torn posterior leaflet in 5 (5.8%). We documented severe MR in 88 patients (7.1%), with 85 (6.9%) among them developing features of cardiogenic shock. None of the echocardiographic scoring systems were predictive of the occurrence of MR. The 30-day mortality was 4.7%. The mean clinical follow-up period after discharge was 9.3 ± 0.9 years (range 2.2–17.8) with no late mortality. Acute severe MR had an incidence of 7% in this study. Injury to the anterior mitral leaflet was the commonest cause. The long-term outcomes were good with timely intervention and valve replacement surgery despite the fact that the majority (96%) presented with cardiogenic shock. None of the present valve scoring systems could predict the occurrence of severe MR.
KeywordsMitral stenosis Mitral valvuloplasty Mitral regurgitation Cardiogenic shock
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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