It is exceptionally difficult to have productive farming without the use of herbicides. It has been found that they create difficulties in the growth and biological nitrogen fixation of some legume crops after their application. Adverse impacts may result from a direct effect of the herbicide on rhizobial growth and/or an indirect effect on plant growth. In order to study the effect of some PRE and POST herbicides on nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and growth characteristics of three chickpea cultivars, a greenhouse trial was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications. Pyridate, imazethapyr, and trifluralin were applied with the recommended rates of 1100, 100, and 720 g ai ha−1, respectively, and also non-treated control on three chickpea cultivars (ILS482, Hashem, and Kaka). The results showed that trifluralin and pyridate herbicides had the highest and the least negative impact on growth characteristics of three examined cultivars. Pyridate showed a positive effect on vegetative characteristics but nodulation and total nitrogen contents in the shoots of chickpea cultivars decreased significantly. Results also revealed that root and shoot growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation diminished significantly when imazethapyr and trifluralin were applied to Hashem and ILC482 cultivars. It seems that pyridate is an appropriate herbicide for broadleaf weed control in chickpea fields.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Al-Thahabi SA, Yasin IZ, Abu-Irmaileh BE, Haddad NI, Saxena MC. 1994. Effect of weed removal on productivity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Med.) in a Mediterranean environment. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 172: 333–341
Bayat M, Kavhiza N, Orujov E, Zargar M, Akhrarov M, Temewei AG. 2019. Integrated weed control methods utilizing planting pattern in sugar beet. Res. on Crops 20(2): 413–418
Boydston RA, Nelson H, Chaves-Cordoba B. 2018. Tolerance of chickpeas to postemergence broadleaf herbicides. Weed Technol. 32: 190–194
Brıgido C, Alexandre A, Laranjo M, Oliveira S. 2007. Moderately acidophilic mesorhizobia isolated from chickpea. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 44: 168–174
Cardina, J, Hartwig, N, Lukezic FL. 1986. Herbicidal effects on crownvetch rhizobia and nodule activity. Weed Sci. 34: 338–343
Datta A, Sindel BM, Kristiansen P, Jessop RS, Felton WL. 2009. Effect of isoxaflutole on the growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Crop Protect. 28: 923–927
Duy L, Chon NM, Mann RK, Kumar RVN, Morell MA. 2018. Efficacy of Rinskor TM (florpyrauxifen-benzyl ester) on herbicide resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in rice fields of Mekong Delta, Vietnam. J. Crop Sci. Biotech. 21(1): 75–81
Fernandes TCC, Maria DEC, Marin-Morales A. 2007. Mechanism of micronuclei formation in polyploidizated cells of Allium cepa exposed to trifluralin herbicide. Pestic. BIochem. Phys. 88 (3): 252–259
Jefferies ML, Willenborg CJ, Tar’an B. 2016. Response of chickpea cultivars to imidazolinone herbicide applied at different growth stages. Weed Technol. 30: 664–676
Kantar F, Hafeez FY, Shivkumar BG, Sundaram SP, Tejera NA, Aslam A, Raja P. 2007. Chickpea: rhizobium management and nitrogen fixation. In SS Yadav, RJ Redden, W Chen, B SharmaB, eds., Chickpea Breeding and Management. Wallingford, UK, CAB International, pp 179–192
Kaur K, Kaur J, Grewal SK, Singh S. 2017. Herbicide induced physiological changes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. J. Food Legumes 30(3): 20–26
Klute A, Dirksen C. 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and dffusivity: laboratory methods. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Methods, A Klute, Ed, 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI, USA
Lees B. 2004. Weed control in chickpea, an Alberta perspective. http://ssca.usask.ca/conference/2000proceedings/Lees.html. Accessed: February 1, 2000
Lindsay WL, Norvell WA. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42: 421–428
Mafakheri S, Zargar M, Fakhri K. 2012. The best application time and dose of herbicide for optimum weed management in two red bean cultivars. Ind. J Sci. Technol. 5: 1848–50
Mallik MAB, Tesfai K. 1985. Pesticidal effect on soybean-rhizobia symbiosis. Plant Soil 85: 33–41
Mohammadi G, Javanshir A, Khooie FR, Mohammadi SA. 2005. Critical period of weed interference in chickpea. Weed Res. 45: 57–63
Olsen SR Cole CV, Wattenberg FS, Dean LA. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. United States Department of Agriculture, USA
Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR. 1982. Method of soil analysis. Part 2: chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd ed. America Society of Agronomy. Soil Science of America Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Paolini R, Faustini F, Saccardo F, Crino P. 2006. Competitive interactions between chickpea genotypes and weeds. Weed Res. 46: 335–344
Richards LA. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soil. United States Department of American Agriculture. Hand Book. Washington
Shahbazi S, Diyanat M, Mahdavi S, Samadi S. 2019. Broadleaf weed control in rain-fed chickpea. Weed Technol. doi: 10.1017/wet.2018.40
Shakouri MJ, Varasteh Vajargah A, Ghasemi Gavabar M, Mafakheri S, Zargar M. 2012. Rice vegetative response to different biological and chemical fertilizers. Adv. Environ. Biol. 6 (2): 859–862
Singh G, Wright D. 1999. Effects of herbicides on nodulation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, growth and yield of pea (Pisum sativum). J. Agric. Sci. 133: 21–30
Singh G, Wright D. 2002. Effect of herbicides on nodulation and growth of two varieties of peas (Pisum sativum). Acta Agron. Hung. 50(3): 337–348
Walkley A, Black IA. 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. J. Soil Sci. 37: 29–37
Zargar M, Pakina E, Plushikov V, Vvedenskiy V, Bayat M. 2017. Efficacy of reducing linture doses and biological components for an effective weeds control in wheat fields. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci. 23: 980–987
This work is a part of a joint research. Authors duly acknowledged Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and RUDN University of Russia for providing the facility for publishing the research findings. It was financially supported by the vice president for research and technology of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
Conflicts of interest
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
About this article
Cite this article
Zargar, M., Lakzian, A., Rasooli, R. et al. Evaluation of PRE and POST Herbicides on Growth Features, Nodulation, and Nitrogen Fixation of Three Cultivars of Chickpea (Cicer aritinium L.). J. Crop Sci. Biotechnol. 23, 157–162 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-019-0310-0
- nitrogen fixation