Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 265–274 | Cite as

Decades of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Breeding for Better Grain Yield and Seed Size has Inadvertently Reduced G × E Interaction and Increased Inter-Temporal Performance Stability

  • Tamene T. TolessaEmail author
  • Gemechu Keneni
  • Hussein Mohammed
  • Seid K. Ahmed
Research Article


Thirteen faba bean varieties including 11 released between 1977 and 2007 and two promising genotypes were evaluated at seven contrasting environments in the central and southeastern highlands of Ethiopia during the main cropping seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The objectives of the study were to evaluate temporal genetic progresses made over three decades of breeding in patterns of G × E interaction and performance stability of the varieties developed in due course for grain yield and seed size of faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. Regression coefficients (bi) of genotypes over years of release as a stability parameter showed a steadily but smoothly decreasing trend at the rate of 9.0 × 10−3 year−1 (r = −0.60; P ≤ 0.01), indicating that varietal performance stability increased with time. Trend analysis based on AMMI stability value (ASV), genotypic selection index (GSI), Shukla stability variance (σi2), and Kang’s rank sum (KRS) values of grain yield also revealed an increasing yield stability over the years of release. For seed size, GSI and KRS values decreased with time. The coefficient of variability (CV) for grain yield and seed size also tended to temporally decline while sustainability index (SuI) increased across the year of releases indicating that there was no performance stability sacrificed to achieve the greater yield potential with larger seed size. Therefore, this data support that selection of new genotypes that yield well at multiple environments, specifically genotypes with large seed size and resistance to disease as a method to increase performance stability.

Key words

Performance stability regression trend analysis Vicia faba years of release 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors would like to thank staff members of the Breeding and Genetics Sections of Kulumsa and Holetta Agricultural Research Centers who managed the field experiment. The financial support provided by Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) is also duly acknowledged.


  1. Amanuel G, Daba F. 2006. Role of food legumes in cropping system in Ethiopia. In: A Seid, R Malhotra, S Beniwal, K Makkouk, MH Halila, eds., Food and forage legumes of Ethiopia: progress and prospects, Proceedings of the Workshop on Food and Forage Legumes, Sept. 22–26, 2003. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp 177–184Google Scholar
  2. Babarmanzoor A, Tariq MS, Ghulam A, Muhammad A. 2009. Genotype × environment interaction for seed yield in kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes developed through mutation breeding. Pak. J. Bot. 41: 1883–1890Google Scholar
  3. Banziger M, Betran FJ, Lafitte HR. 1997. Efficiency of highnitrogen selection environments for improving maize for low-nitrogen target environments. Crop Sci. 37: 1103–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buddenhagen IW, Richards RA. 1988. Breeding cool-season food legumes for improved performance in stress environments. In: RJ Summerfield, ed. World Crops: Cool season food legumes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  5. Calderini DF, Slafer GA. 1998. Changes in yield and yield stability in wheat during the 20th Century. Field Crops Res. 57: 335–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calderini DF, Slafer GA. 1999. Has yield stability changed with genetic improvement of wheat yield? Euphytica 107: 51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ceccarelli S, Grando S. 1991. Selection environment and environmental sensitivity in barley. Euphytica 57: 157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Central Statistical Authority (CSA). 2014. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Agricultural samples survey: Report on area and production of major crops, Volume III, Statistical Bulletin, p 251Google Scholar
  9. Cox TS, Ben-huli LS, Stears RG, Martin TJ. 1988. Genetic improvement in agronomic traits of hard red winter wheat cultivars from 1919 to 1987. Crop Sci. 28: 756–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Bruin and Pedersen. 2008. Yield improvement and stability for soybean cultivars with resistance to Heterodera glycines Ichinohe. Agron. J. 100(5): 1354–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Douglas G. 2006. Impact of international research on intertemporal yield stability in wheat and maize: An economic assessment. Department of Economics, Williams College, USA, Pp 53Google Scholar
  12. Eberhart SA, Russell WA. 1966. Stability parameters for comparing varieties. Crop Sci. 6: 36–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Falconer DS, and Mackay TFC. 1996. Introduction to quantitative genetics, 4th ed. Longman, Group limited, Malaysia, 464 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Farshadfar E. 2008. Incorporation of AMMI stability value and grain yield in a single non-parametric index (GSI) in bread wheat. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 11(14): 1791–1796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Finlay KW, Wilkinson GN. 1963. The analysis of adaptation in a plant-breeding programme, Aust. J. Agric. Res. 14: 742–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Francis TR, Kannenberg LW. 1978. Yield stability studies in short-season maize: I. a descriptive method for grouping genotypes. Cana. J. Plant Sci. 58: 1029–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gemechu K, Endashaw B, Imtiaz M, Emana, G, Kifle D, Fassil A, 2011. Breeding chickpea (Cicer arietnum [Fabaceae]) for better seed quality inadvertently increased susceptibility to adzuki bean beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis [Coleoptera: Bruchidae]). Int. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 31(4): 249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gemechu K, Mussa J, Belay A, Maaza K. 2002. On-farm evaluation of faba bean and field pea varieties around Holetta. pp. 176–187. In K Gemechu, G Yohannes, B Kiflu, Y Chilot, D Asgelil, eds., Towards Farmers’ Participatory Research: Attempts and achievements in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia Proceedings of Client-Oriented Research Evaluation Workshop, 16–18 October 2001. Holetta Agricultural Research Center, Holetta, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Gemechu K, Mussa J, Tezera W. 2006. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genetics and breeding research in Ethiopia. In: A Kemal, K Gemechu, A Seid, R Malhotra, S Beniwal, K Makkouk, MH Halila, eds., Food and forage legumes of Ethiopia: progress and prospects, Proceedings of the Workshop on Food and Forage Legumes, Sept. 22–26, 2003. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp 42–52Google Scholar
  20. Haciseferogullari H, Gezer I, Bahtiyarca Y, Menges HO. 2003. Determination of some chemical and physical properties of Sakiz faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major). J. Food Eng. 60, 475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hussein MA, Bjornstad A, Aastveit AH. 2000. SAS G × E STAB: A SAS program for computing genotype × environment stability statistics. Agron. J. 92, 454–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jian J, Xiaobing L, Guanghua W, Liang M, Zhongbao Shen, Xueli Ch, Stephen JH. 2010. Agronomic and physiological contributions to the yield improvement of soybean cultivars released from 1950 to 2006 in Northeast China. Field Crops Res. 115: 116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kang MS. 1990. Understanding and utilization of genotype × environment interaction in plant breeding. In: Kang MS, ed. Genotype × environment, interaction and plant breeding, Louisiana State University, Department of Agronomy, Baton Rouge, pp 52–68Google Scholar
  24. Kebere B, Ketema B, Prapa S. 2006. Genetic gain in grain yield potential and associated agronomic traits in haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Kaset. J. Nat. Sci. 40: 835–847Google Scholar
  25. Mengel K and Kirkby EA. 1996. Principles of Plant Nutrition, 4th ed. Panima Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, India, 314 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Mosisa W, Habtamu Z. 2007. Advances in improving harvest index and grain yield of maize in Ethiopia. East Afr. J. Sci. 1(2): 112–119Google Scholar
  27. Mulusew F, Suso MJ, Tadesse T, Legesse T. 2008. Analysis of multi-environment yield performance of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes using AMMI model. J. Genet. Breed. 62: 25–30Google Scholar
  28. Mussa J, Gemechu K. 2006. Vicia faba L. In: M Brink, G Belay, eds., Plant resources of Tropical Africa 1: Cereals and Pulses, PROTA Foundation, Wageningen, Netherlands/Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands/CTA, Wageningen, Netherlands, pp 195–199Google Scholar
  29. Mussa J, Gemechu K, Belay A, Wuletaw T, Wendafrash M, Tadele T. 2001. Performance of elite faba bean genotypes for grain yield under waterlogged vertisols of the Ethiopian highlands. Tenth Annual Conference of the Crop Science Society of Ethiopia, June 2001, EARO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp 19–21Google Scholar
  30. Navabi A, Yang RC, Helm J, Spawer DM. 2006. Can spring wheat growing mega-environments in the Northern Great Plain be dissected for representative locations or niche-adapted genotypes? Crop Sci. 46: 1107–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Purchase JL, Hatting H, Van Deventer CS. 2000. Genotype × environment interaction of winter wheat in South Africa: II. Stability analysis of yield performance. South Afr. J. Plant Soil 17: 101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. SAS STAT. 2002. Guide for Personal Computers, Version 9.0 edition, Cary, NC, SAS Institute USAGoogle Scholar
  33. Shukla GK. 1972. Some statistical aspects of partitioning genotype-environment components of variability. Heredity 29: 237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Slafer GA, Kernich GC. 1996. Have changes in yield (1900–1992, been accompanied by a decrease in yield stability in Australia cereal production? Aus. J. Agric. Res. 47: 323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Somani LL. 1996. Crop production in acid soils. 1st edition, Agrotech Publishing Academy, New Delhi, 224 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Subira J, Alvaro F, Garcia del Moral LF, Royo C. 2015. Breeding effects on the cultivar x environment interaction of durum wheat yield. Europ. J. Agron. 68: 78–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tamene TT, Gemechu K, Tadese S, Mussa J, Yeneneh B. 2013. Genotype x environment interaction and performance stability for grain yield in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes. Int. J. Plant Breed. 7(3): 116–123Google Scholar
  38. Tamene T, Gemechu K, Tadese S, Mussa J. 2015. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes. Crop J. 3: 258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tamene TT, Gemechu K, Hussein M. 2015. Genetic progress from over three decades of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) breeding in Ethiopia. Aus. J. Crop Sci. 9(1): 41–48Google Scholar
  40. Tamene TT, Tadese S. 2014. Sites regression GGE biplot analysis of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes in three contrasting environments. World J. Agric. Res. 2(5): 228–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Woldeyesus S. 2005. Tradeoff between yield increase and yield stability in three decades of barley breeding in a tropical highland environment. Field Crops Res. 92: 35–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wondimu F, Habtamu Z, Amsalu A. 2011. Genetic improvement in grain yield potential and associated traits of food barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Ethiopia. Ethio. J. Appl. Sci. Tech. 2(2): 43–60Google Scholar
  43. Yang Y, Liu DL, Anwar MR, Zuo H, Yang Y. 2014. Impact of future climate change on wheat production in relation to plant-available water capacity in a semiarid environment. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 115: 391–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamene T. Tolessa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gemechu Keneni
    • 2
  • Hussein Mohammed
    • 3
  • Seid K. Ahmed
    • 4
  1. 1.International Livestock Research InstituteAddis AbabaEthiopia
  2. 2.Holetta Agricultural Research CenterAddis AbabaEthiopia
  3. 3.Hawassa University, College of AgricultureAwassaEthiopia
  4. 4.International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry AreasAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations