Cytogenetic Diversity of Korean Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
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Chromosomes of Korean hexaploid wheat were investigated to compare the chromosomal karyotype for cytogenetic diversity. Chromosomal karyotyping was done with in situ hybridization using two types of simple sequence repeats (SSR)s, (AAG)5 and (AAC)5 labeled with tetramethyl-rhodamine-5-dUTP and fluorescein-12-dUPT as a fluorescence, respectively. The two SSRs as cytogenetic markers revealed that the cytogenetic characteristics of the wheat chromosomes were remarkably a B genome. In this study, the chromosomal karyotype of Keumkang, a Korean hexaploid wheat cultivar, was the A, B, and D genomes used as a cytogenetic reference. The expressed signals from the two SSRs showed a difference in the chromosomal karyotype of chromosome 1B among the Korean hexaploid wheat. The distribution pattern and the degree of condensation for the (AAG)5 and (AAC)5 signals on the short arm of chromosome 1B were different in the Korean hexaploid wheat shown in descending order: Keumkang > Joeun > Johan > Olgeuru. Olgeuru had a lower level of distribution and condensation for the two SSRs signals compared to the other Korean hexaploid wheat. In the A genome, chromosome 7A showed an unbalanced expression of the (AAG)5 signal on the distal region of the short and long arms in several Korean hexaploid wheat while Joeun, a Korean hexaploid wheat, showed a definite (AAG)5 signal on the distal region of each arm of chromosome 7A. Among the Korean hexaploid wheat, Shinmichal1, a Korean hexaploid waxy wheat, had a chromosome with a unique expression pattern for (AAG)5 and (AAC)5 compared the other Korean hexaploid wheat. Those cytogenetic differences identified in this study are useful as an indicator to improve the cytogenetic diversity in the Korean wheat breeding program.
Key wordsKorean wheat simple sequence repeats chromosomal karyotype
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