Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 425–434 | Cite as

Application of Glycerin and Polymer Coated Diammonium Phosphate in Alkaline Calcareous Soil for Improving Wheat Growth, Grain Yield and Phosphorus Use Efficiency

  • Muhammad Imran
  • Muhammad Irfan
  • Muhammad Yaseen
  • Naser Rasheed
Research Article


Low-use efficiency of phosphatic fertilizers in calcareous soils is a serious issue worldwide resulting in sub-optimal phosphorus (P) availability to plants. Polymer-coated fertilizers provide an effective solution to enhance P-use efficiency in such soils by reducing fixation and ensuring slow and consistent phosphate supply to growing plants. The present field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of commercial diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer and coated DAP with polymer and/or glycerin to improve plant growth, grain yield, and P-use efficiency of wheat crops. The results revealed that application of 100% recommended rate of glycerin + polymer coated DAP significantly enhanced plant height, number of fertile tillers m-2, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, and P uptake in comparison with commercial DAP fertilizer. Moreover, polymer coated DAP produced comparatively better results than glycerin coated DAP alone. The sustainable yield index, P agronomic and recovery efficiencies were also improved and recorded higher with glycerin + polymer-coated DAP fertilizer at 100% of the recommended rate. Furthermore, higher P uptake, P recovery, and agronomic efficiencies in response to coated DAP were found responsible for sustainable wheat yield. Overall, the glycerin + polymer-coated DAP with 75% recommended rate showed statistically identical results to uncoated DAP with 100% recommended rate. The amount of applied P vulnerable to fixation was significantly reduced with the application of glycerin + polymer-coated DAP thereby resulting in improved plant growth, grain yield, and P-use efficiency of wheat crops.

Key words

Polymer P-recovery efficiency P-use efficiency slow-released fertilizer wheat 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbas M, Irfan M, Shah JA, Memon MY. 2018. Intra–specific variations among wheat genotypes for phosphorus–use efficiency. Asian J. Agri. Biol. 6: 35–45Google Scholar
  2. Akhtar MS, Oki Y, Adachi T. 2008. Genetic variability in phosphorus acquisition and utilization efficiency from sparingly soluble P–sources by Brassica cultivars under P–stress environment. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 194: 380–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alinajoati SS, Mirshekari B. 2011. Effect of phosphorus fertilization and seed bio fertilization on harvest index and phoshorus use efficiency of wheat cultivars. J. Food Agri. Environ. 9: 388–397Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous. 2017. Pakistan Economic Survey 2016–17. Finance Division, Advisory Wing, Islamabad, Pakistan. pp 23–24Google Scholar
  5. Basu S, Kumar N. 2008. Mathematical model and computer simulation for release of nutrients from coated fertilizer granules. Math Comp. Sim. 79: 634–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouyoucos GJ. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agron. J. 54: 464–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brady NC, Weil RR. 2008. The Nature and Properties of Soils, 14th Ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman HD, Pratt PF. 1961. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters, University of California, Division of Agricultural Science, USAGoogle Scholar
  9. Collins NC, Tardieu F, Tuberosa R. 2008. Quantitative trait loci and crop performance under abiotic stress: Where do we stand? Plant Physiol. 147: 469–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cordell D, Drangert JO, White S. 2009. The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Glob Environ. Chan. 19: 292–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dhillon J, Torres G, Driver E, Figueiredo B, Raun WR. 2017. World phosphorus use efficiency in cereal crops. Agron. J. 109: 1670–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dou H, Alva AK. 1998. Nitrogen uptake and growth of two citrus rootstock seedlings in a sandy soil receiving different controlled–release fertilizer sources. Biol. Fert. Soil. 26: 169–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fageria NK, de Morais O, dos Santos A. 2010. Nitrogen use efficiency in upland rice genotypes. J. Plant Nutr. 33: 1696–1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldstein AH, Lester T, Brown J. 2003. Research on the metabolic engineering of the direct oxidation pathway for extraction of phosphate from ore has generated preliminary evidence for PQQ biosynthesis in Escherichia coli as well as a possible role for the highly conserved region of quinoprotein dehydrogenases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1647: 266–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hameed E, Shah WA, Shad AA, Bakht J, Muhammad T. 2003. Effect of different planting dates, seed rate and Nitrogen levels on wheat. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2: 467–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hammond JP, Broadley MR, White PJ, King GJ, Bowen HC, Hayden R, Meacham MC, Mead A, Overs T, Spracklen WP, Greenwood DJ. 2009. Shoot yield drives phosphorus use efficiency in Brassica oleracea and correlates with root architecture traits. J. Exp. Bot. 60: 1953–1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hartmann TE, Yue SC, Schulz R, Chen XP, Zhang FS, Muller T. 2014. Nitrogen dynamics, apparent mineralization and balance calculations in a maize–wheat double cropping system of the North China Plain. Field Crops Res. 160: 22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Helmke PA, Sparks DL. 1996. Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium in Methods of Soil Analysis, In Sparks DL, ed, Chemical Methods, Part 3, Vol 5. SSSA and ASA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pp 551–574Google Scholar
  19. Huett DO, Gogel BJ. 2000. Longevities and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium release patterns of polymer–coated controlled release fertilizers at 30°C and 40°C. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 31: 959–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Irfan M, Abbas M, Shah JA, Memon MY. 2018. Grain yield, nutrient accumulation and fertilizer efficiency in bread wheat under variable nitrogen and phosphorus regimes. J. Basic Appl. Sci.14: 80–86Google Scholar
  21. Irfan M, Memon MY, Shah JA, Abbas M. 2016. Application of nitrogen and phosphorus in different ratios to affect paddy yield, nutrient uptake and efficiency relations in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Environ Agric. 1: 79–86Google Scholar
  22. Irfan M, Shah JA, Abbas M. 2017. Evaluating the performance of mungbean genotypes for grain yield, phosphorus accumulation and utilization efficiency. J. Plant Nutr. 40: 2709–2720Google Scholar
  23. Jackson ML. 1962. Soil chemical analysis, Englewood cliffs, NJ: Printice Hall, Inc., pp 151–153Google Scholar
  24. Jacobs DF. 2004. Variation in nutrient release of polymer–coated fertilizers. USDA Forest Service Pro. RMRS–P 35: 113–118Google Scholar
  25. Kumar GF, Chardon WJ, Ehlert PAI, Dolfing J, Suurs RAA, Oenema O, Riemsdijk WHV. 2001. Phosphorus availability for plant uptake in a phosphorus–enriched non calcareous sandy soil. J. Environ. Qual. 33: 965–975Google Scholar
  26. Lambers H, Plaxton WC. 2015. Phosphorus: Back to the roots. Annu. Plant. Rev. 48: 3–22Google Scholar
  27. Manschadi AM, Kaul HP, Vollmann J, Eitzinger J, Wenzel W. 2014. Developing phosphorus efficient crop varieties–An interdisciplinary research framework. Field Crops Res. 162: 87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mendes FF, Guimaraes LJM, Souza JC, Guimaraes PEO, Magalhaes JV, Garcia AAF, Parentoni SN, Guimaraes CT. 2014. Genetic architecture of phosphorus use efficiency in tropical maize cultivated in a low–P soil. Crop Sci. 54: 1530–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Morgan KT, Cushman KE, Sato S. 2009. Release mechanisms for slow–and controlled–release fertilizers and strategies for their use in vegetable production. Hort. Technol. 19: 10–12Google Scholar
  30. Murphy L, Sanders L. 2007. Improving N and P use efficiency with polymer technology. Indiana CCA Conference Proceedings, 1–13Google Scholar
  31. Nelson DW, Sommers LE. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter, In Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR, eds, Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: ASA, pp 539–579Google Scholar
  32. Niemiera AX, Leda CE. 2007. Nitrogen leaching from Osmocotefertilized pine bark at leaching fractions of 0 to 0.4. J. Environ. Hort. 11: 75–77Google Scholar
  33. Noor S, Yaseen M, Naveed M, Ahmad R. 2017. Use of controlled release phosphatic fertilizer to improve growth, yield and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat crop. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 54: 541–547Google Scholar
  34. Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS, Dean LA. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate, vol. 939, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  35. Qian P, Schoenau J. 2010. Effects of conventional and controlled release phosphorus fertilizer on crop emergence and growth response under controlled environment conditions. J. Plant Nutr. 33: 1253–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rajkhowa DJ, Baroova SR. 2002. Phosphorus management in wheat–rice cropping sequence. Indian J. Agron. 37: 781–782Google Scholar
  37. Reddy DD, Rao AS, Reddy KS, Takkar PN. 1999. Yield sustainability and phosphorus utilization in soybean–wheat system on Vertisols in response to integrated use of manure and fertilizer phosphorus. Field Crops Res. 62: 181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ruark M. 2012. Advantages and disadvantages of controlled release fertilizers, Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI FFVC, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  39. Salvagiotti F, Castellarin JM, Miralles DJ, Pedrol HM. 2009. Sulfur fertilization improves nitrogen–use efficiency in wheat by increasing nitrogen uptake. Field Crops Res. 113: 170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sharma GC. 2002. Controlled–release fertilizers and horticultural applications. Sci. Hort. 11: 107–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sharma KNS. 2006. Soil phosphorus fraction dynamics and phosphorus sorption in a continous maize–wheat cropping system.18th World Congress Soil Sci. July 9–15 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USAGoogle Scholar
  42. Shaviv A, Mikkelsen RL. 1993. Controlled–release fertilizers to increase efficiency of nutrient use and minimize environmental degradation–A review. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys. 35: 1–12Google Scholar
  43. Shoji S, Delgado J, Mosier A, Miura Y. 2001. Use of controlled release fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors to increase nitrogen use efficiency and to conserve air and water quality. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32: 1051–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shuan–hu T, Shao–hai Y, Jian–sheng C, Pei–zhi X, Fa–bao Z, Shao–ying A, Xu H. 2007. Studies on the mechanism of single basal application of controlled–release fertilizers for increasing yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Agric. Sci. China 6: 586–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Simonne EH, Hutchinson CM. 2005. Controlled–release fertilizers for vegetable in the era of best management practices: Teaching new tricks to an old dog. Hort. Technol. 15: 36–46Google Scholar
  46. Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dicky DA. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics–A Biometrical Approach, Singapore: McGraw–Hill Book Inter. Co., pp 204–227Google Scholar
  47. Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418: 671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Torbert HA, Potter KN, Hoffman DW, Gerik TJ, Richardson CW. 1999. Surface residue and soil moisture affect fertilizer loss in simulated runoff on a heavy clay soil. Agron. J. 91: 606–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. US Salinity Laboratory Staff. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils, USDA Handbook No. 60, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang FL, Alva AK. 1996. Leaching of nitrogen from slow–release urea sources in sandy soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60: 1454–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Withers PJA, Clay SD, Breeze VG. 2001. Phosphorus transfer in runoff following application of fertilizer, manures and sewage sludge. J. Environ. Qual. 30: 180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wolf B. 1982. The comprehensive system of leaf analysis and its use for diagnosing crop nutrient status. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 13: 1035–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Xiang V, Yun JJ, Ping H, Zao LM. 2008. Recent advances on the technologies to increase fertilizer–use efficiency. Agric. Sci. China 7: 469–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yaseen M, Aziz MZ, Manzoor A, Naveed M, Hamid Y, Noor S, Khalid MA. 2017. Promoting growth, yield, and phosphorususe efficiency of crops in maize–wheat cropping system by using polymer–coated diammonium phosphate. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 48: 646–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yuan H, Liu D. 2008. Signaling components involved in plant responses to phosphate starvation. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 50: 849–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhan R, Liu M, Guo M, Wu L. 2004. Preparation of superabsorbent polymer with slow–release phosphate fertilizer. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92: 3417–3421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang Z, Tian X, Duan L, Wang B, He Z, Li Z. 2007. Differential responses of conventional and bt–transgenic cotton to potassium deficiency. J. Plant Nutr. 30: 659–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Crop Science (KSCS) and Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Imran
    • 1
  • Muhammad Irfan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad Yaseen
    • 1
  • Naser Rasheed
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Soil and Environmental Sciences DivisionNuclear Institute of AgricultureTandojamPakistan

Personalised recommendations