Advertisement

Water History

, Volume 11, Issue 3–4, pp 233–252 | Cite as

Technical study of the historical aqueduct of Kavala, Greece

  • D. Dermentzoglou
  • S. Dadaki
  • I. AvgoloupisEmail author
  • K. L. Katsifarakis
Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Kavala, initially founded as Neapolis in the seventh century BC, and later called Christoupolis, has flourished as an important urban center and port in Eastern Macedonia, Greece, during many historical periods. In this paper, we study the remnants of its historical aqueduct, which carried water to the city from mountainous springs at a distance of 6500 m from the city walls. Our study includes: (a) archeological evidence regarding its construction period, which shows that it was initially constructed during the late Roman era and was heavily reconstructed by the Ottomans, in the first part of the sixteenth century ad, and (b) new topographical measurements and hydraulic calculations, aiming at drawing conclusions, mainly on its carrying capacity. Taking into account the preserved parts of the aqueduct’s channel only, we have estimated that its carrying capacity was quite large, with regard to the population that it was supposed to serve. Moreover, we have delineated the city area that the aqueduct could not serve directly, due to ground elevation differences.

Keywords

Aqueduct Carrying capacity Topographical measurements Manning formula Kavala, Greece 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to Mr. Prodromos Moutsokapas, for conducting additional topographical measurements.

References

  1. Angelakis A, Mays NW, Koutsoyiannis D, Mamassis N (2012) Evolution of water consumption through the millennia. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakalakis G (1936) Neapolis–Christoupolis–Kavala. Archaelogiki Efimeris (Archael J) 75:1–48 (in Greek) Google Scholar
  3. Bakalakis G (1938) The next-to-Christoupolis wall. Ellinika 10:307–318 (in Greek) Google Scholar
  4. Bakirtzis Ch (1980) Byzantine Kavala: archaeological survey. In: Kavala and its area. Proceedings of institute for Balkan studies first regional symposium, Thessaloniki, pp 527–528 (in Greek) Google Scholar
  5. Belon P (1554) Les observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses mémorables trouvées en Grèce, Asie, Judée, Égypte, Arabie et autres pays estranges, rédigées en trois livres. ParisGoogle Scholar
  6. Christaki M, Stournaras G, Nastos PT, Mamassis N (2017) Water supply associated with the development of the city of Athens from the Hellenistic era until the end of the 19th century. Water Hist 9(4):389–410.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12685-017-0197-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crow J (2012) Ruling the waters: managing the water supply of Constantinople, AD 330–1204. Water Hist 4:35–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crow J, Bardill J, Bayliss R (2008) The water supply of Byzantine Constantinople. Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Dadaki S, Iliadis E, Iliadis I (2016) Distance water carriers in the Roman period. The case of Philippi and Neapolis-Kavala. III International Congress Santuários, Cultura, Arte, Romarias, Peregrinações, Paisagens e PessoasGoogle Scholar
  10. De Feo G, Angelakis AN, Antoniou GP, El-Gohary F, Haut B, Passchier CW, Zheng XY (2013) Historical and technical notes on aqueducts from prehistoric to medieval times. Water 5(4):1996–2025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dimitriadis V (1983) Topography of Thessaloniki during the Ottoman period 1430–1912. Society for Macedonian Studies, Thessaloniki (in Greek) Google Scholar
  12. Dvornik F (1926) La vie de saint Grégoire de Décapolite et les Slaves Macédoniens au IXe siècle. Travaux publiés par l’Institut d’études slaves, V, Paris, p 1926Google Scholar
  13. Fatouros G (ed) (1992) Theodori Studitae Epistulae De Gruyter. Berolini/Novi Eboraci, Berlin/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Gala-Geogrila E (2015) Trails of water and organization of space on Thessaloniki during the middle and later Byzantine period 2 vols, PhD thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (in Greek) Google Scholar
  15. Katsifarakis KL, Avgoloupis I (2013) A new approach to the description of a Babylonian hydraulic work by Herodotus. Class Q 63(2):888–891.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0009838813000360 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Katsoni P (2003) Ottoman conquests in Byzantine Macedonia—the case of Christoupolis. Byzantina 23:191–208 (in Greek) Google Scholar
  17. Keilholz P (2017) Water supply and distribution in the ancient Decapolis city of Gadara. Water Hist 9(2):147–168.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12685-016-0178-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kiel M (1992) Remarks on some Ottoman-Turkish aqueducts and water supply systems in the Balkans—Kavalla, Chalkis, Levkas and Ferai/Ferecik. In: Vandamme M (ed) De turcicis aliisque rebus: Commentarii Henry Hofman dedicati. Instituut voor Oosterse Talen en Culturen, Utrecht, pp 105–139Google Scholar
  19. Kiel M (1996) Ottoman building activity along the via Egnatia, the cases of Pazargah, Kavalla and Ferecik. In: El Zachariadou (ed) The via Egnatia under Ottoman Rule (1380–1699). Crete University Press, Rethymnon, pp 145–158Google Scholar
  20. Koukouli-Chrisanthaki H, Tsouris K (1986) In: Archaeologikon Deltion - Chronika, 41:175–176 (in Greek) Google Scholar
  21. Koutsoyiannis D, Zarkadoulas N, Angelakis AN, Tchobanoglous G (2008) Urban water management in ancient Greece: legacies and lessons. J Water Resour Plan Manag 134(1):45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lazaridis D (1969) Neapolis Christoupolis Kavala—Kavala Museum Guide. Athens (in Greek) Google Scholar
  23. Lowry H (2008) The shaping of the Ottoman Balkans 1350–1550. Bahçeşehir University Publications, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  24. Lychounas M (2008) Medieval aqueduct of Kavala—Kamares. Greek Ministry of Culture—12th Ephorate of Antiquities, Kavala (in Greek) Google Scholar
  25. Manoledakis M (2018) The water supply of Roman Thessaloniki. Great waterworks in Roman Greece. Archaeopress Publishing Ltd, Oxford, pp 50–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mertzios K (1947) Monuments of Macedonian history. Society for Macedonian Studies, Thessaloniki (in Greek) Google Scholar
  27. Moshopoulos N (1938) Greece as described by Evliya Celeby. J Soc Byz Stud 14:486–514 (in Greek) Google Scholar
  28. Reinach S (1882) La reconstruction des murs de Cavalla au 10e siecle. BCH 6:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stefanidou A (1991) The city-port of Kavala during the Ottoman period—Urban Planning Investigation (1391–1912.) PhD Thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (in Greek) Google Scholar
  30. Tsouris K (1998) Neapolis–Christoupolis–Kavala. Corrections—Additions—Observations at fortification and water supply. Archaelogikon Deltion 53—Studies 387–454 (in Greek) Google Scholar
  31. Vacalopoulos A (1973) History of Makedonia 1354–1833. Institute for Balkan Studies, ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Ephorate of Antiquities of KavalaKavalaGreece

Personalised recommendations