Pt-Ru-NiTiO3 Nanoparticles Dispersed on Vulcan as High Performance Electrocatalysts for the Methanol Oxidation Reaction (MOR)
- 525 Downloads
We propose a high performance electrocatalyst based on Pt-Ru-NiTiO3 nanoparticles supported on Vulcan carbon (Pt-Ru-NiTiO3/C) for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in acid medium. The electrocatalyst is prepared from a two-step procedure using a wet chemical method. The morphological studies from TEM indicate that Pt-Ru-NiTiO3 nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on Vulcan carbon. The XRD shows the fcc structure of Pt nanomaterials, while the chemical composition examined using XPS indicates the presence of large fractions of Pt0 and Ru0 species (i.e., metallic state), OH− and O2− species are also formed on the surface of the catalyst. The Pt-Ru-NiTiO3/C electrocatalyst exhibits a higher catalytic activity compared to a PtRu/C alloy. Pt-NiTiO3/C is also more active than the alloy. Therefore, on one side, the addition of Ru enhances the MOR through the formation of oxygenated adsorbed species on Ru, which thereby promotes the oxidation of CO to CO2 at more negative potentials (i.e., the bifunctional mechanism). On the other hand, the superior electrocatalytic performance of Pt-Ru-NiTiO3/C is attributed also to the synergistic effects of NiTiO3, which promotes the reaction increasing the current density and shifting the onset potential to even more negative values, suggesting that it also participates in the bifunctional mechanism along with Ru. From the results shown here, Pt-Ru-NiTiO3/C can be a promising anode nanomaterial for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).
KeywordsPt-Ru alloys XPS characterization Methanol oxidation reaction Electrocatalysts Direct methanol fuel cells
We thank Prof. N. Munichandraiah and Prof. G. Mohan Rao of the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, for their help rendered in the XPS analysis.
We gratefully acknowledge DST (Nano Mission-SR/NM/NS-1016/2010) and DST-CONACYT (Indo-Mexican Bilateral programme-INT/MEXICO/P14/2012 and grant 252079) for the financial support. This work was also funded through the Project 241526 from CONACYT.
- 2.U.S. Energy Information Administration, International energy outlook (Report Number: DOE/EIA-0484) (2016) Retrieved from http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo Accessed 30 June 2016
- 7.G.S. Chai, S.B. Yoon, J.H. Kim, J.S. Yu, Spherical carbon capsules with hollow macroporous core and mesoporous shell structures as a highly efficient catalyst support in the direct methanol fuel cell, Chem. Commun. 23, 2766–2767 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1039/B412747C
- 9.E. Antolini, Platinum Alloys as Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. In Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: From Fundamentals to Applications (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2009), 227–255Google Scholar
- 15.D. González-Quijano, W.J. Pech-Rodriguez, J.A. González-Quijano, J.I. Escalante-Garcia, G. Vargas-Gutiérrez, I. Alonso-Lemus, F.J. Rodriguez-Varela, Electrocatalysts for ethanol and ethylene glycol oxidation reactions. Part II: effects of the polyol synthesis conditions on the characteristics and catalytic activity of Pt–Ru/C anodes. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 40, 17291–17299 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.T.S. Ahmadi, Z.L. Wang, T.C. Green, A. Henglein, M.A. El-Sayed, Shape-controlled synthesis of colloidal platinum nanoparticles. Science New Series 272, 1924–1926 (1996)Google Scholar
- 43.E.V. Spinace, A.O. Neto, T.R.R. Vasconcelos, M. Linardi, Patent BR200304121-AGoogle Scholar
- 46.M. Ercelik, A. Ozden, E. Seker, C.O. Colpan, Characterization and performance evaluation of Pt-Ru/C-TiO2 anode electrocatalyst for DMFC applications. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.12.020
- 55.T.S. Almeida, L.M. Palma, P.H. Leonello, C. Morais, K.B. Kokoh, A.R. De Andrade, An optimization study of PtSn/C catalysts applied to direct ethanol fuel cell: Effect of the preparation method on the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts. J. Power Sources 215, 53–62 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 63.C.D. Wagner, W.M. Riggs, L.E. Davis, J.F. Moulder, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, Eden Praire, 1994)Google Scholar
- 64.V.I. Nefedov, E.K. Zhumadilov, L. Baier, Zhurnal Neorganicheskoi Khimii 23, 2113 (1978)Google Scholar
- 69.A.A. Siller-Ceniceros, M.E. Sánchez-Castro, D. Morales-Acosta, J.R. Torres-Lubian, E.G. Martínez, F.J. Rodríguez-Varela, Innovative functionalization of Vulcan XC-72 with Ru organometallic complex: significant enhancement in catalytic activity of Pt/C electrocatalyst for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Appl. Catal. B Environ. 209, 455–467 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar