, Volume 10, Issue 12, pp 2620–2628 | Cite as

Immeasurable Meditations and Mindfulness

  • Bhikkhu Anālayo


Current research points to occasional problems experienced by practitioners of the immeasurable or boundless states. From a historical perspective, the standard mode of teaching these by way of directing specific thoughts to a particular set of individuals is a later development in the Buddhist traditions, not attested in the early texts. Instead of being the sole way of teaching the cultivation of positive mental attitudes like mettā and compassion, alternative approaches could be developed based on Buddhist canonical precedents that are less demanding in cognitive effort and closer in kind to the cultivation of mindfulness. In fact, mindfulness relates to mettā and compassion in various ways, which reflects its multifunctionality in early Buddhist meditation theory.


appamāṇa apramāṇa brahmavihāra Boundless states Compassion Immeasurables karuṇā Loving kindness mettā Mindfulness 















Taishō edition








Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies performed by the author with human participants or animals.

Conflict of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Barre Center for Buddhist StudiesBarreUSA

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