The Implementation of a Mindfulness-Oriented Retreat Intervention for Rural Women Veterans
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Despite significant advances in the study of mindfulness-based interventions, research on the accessibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of varied implementation platforms is lacking, particularly among rural populations. In this study, we examined the preliminary effectiveness of a retreat-based, mindfulness-oriented intervention for rural, women veterans.
Sixty-six women veterans from rural locales participated in 3-day retreats and completed measures of psychological distress, PTSD symptoms, and mindfulness before the intervention (time 1), after the retreats (time 2), at 1-month (time 3), and 3 months post-intervention (time 4).
Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed statistically significant decreases in global psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and somatization, and significant increases in four facets mindfulness (i.e., observing, acting with awareness, nonjudging, and nonreactivity) at time 2. The participants showed sustained increases in acting with awareness, nonjudging, and nonreactivity at both follow-ups with small effect sizes. At times 3 and 4, participants displayed sustained decreases in PTSD symptoms and depression (ds = .21–.44). Significant interactions demonstrated that those with probable PTSD exhibited the largest changes in symptoms, and sustained changes in PTSD (d = .59) and depression (d = .81) at time 4. Qualitative results revealed the salience of group factors including universality and support; clinician conditions of warmth, availability, and genuineness; retreat-specific elements such as time away and condensed therapeutic care; and programmatic components including mindfulness and yoga.
Retreat-based, mindfulness-oriented programs show promise as an effective alternative for underserved, rural women veterans. The implementation advantages and challenges, particularly among those with PTSD, are discussed.
KeywordsRural women veterans Mindfulness Retreat-based intervention Implementation PTSD
NMS: Designed and executed the study, implemented the interventions, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. BD: Obtained grant funding, designed and executed the study, implemented the interventions, wrote part of the method section, created tables, and collaborated in the editing of the final manuscript. AMS: Reviewed prior research literature, wrote part of the introduction, and collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript.
This research was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Rural Health grant awarded to Barbara M. Dausch, PhD (N19-FY14Q1-S2-P01019).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures used were in accordance with the ethical standards of and approved by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board (COMIRB) and the VA Office of Research and Development.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants in this study.
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