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Validation of the Spanish Version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) with Samples of Spanish and Chilean Children and Adolescents

  • Carlos García-RubioEmail author
  • Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal
  • Alvaro Ignacio Langer
  • David Paniagua
  • Philipp Steinebach
  • Catherine Iris Andreu
  • María Dolores Vara
  • Ausiás Cebolla



Interest in mindfulness practices aimed at children and adolescents in school and clinical contexts has increased. However, little research on the benefits of mindfulness in these age groups has been conducted. In Spanish-speaking countries, this lack of research may be due to the scarcity of reliable and valid instruments for assessing mindfulness in young people. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) in native Spanish-speaking children and adolescents.


Two thousand one hundred thirteen children and adolescents from Spain (N = 490 children; N = 629 adolescents) and Chile (N = 307 children; N = 687 adolescents) were assessed. Factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, and measure invariance between countries were examined.


Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated a unidimensional structure (10 items) that fitted the data better than the bidimensional structure both for children and adolescents in both countries. However, the factor loadings of some items were very low in all samples. After eliminating these items, a new, 7-item version of the CAMM proved to be more valid and reliable. The new version correlated negatively with several mental health measures, thereby supporting its construct validity. Also, the measurement invariance test showed that it is comparable between Spain and Chile, which makes transcultural research possible.


This study shows that the Spanish version of the CAMM adequately assesses mindfulness in children and adolescents. The CAMM is the first mindfulness evaluation measure for children in Spanish.


Mindfulness Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure CAMM Children and adolescents Assessment Spanish Acceptance 



Special appreciation is expressed to the children and adolescents who participated, as well as to their teachers and parents; all of whom made these studies possible.

Author Contributions

CGR designed the study, assisted with data analyses, wrote the paper, and edited the final manuscript. RRC designed the study, assisted with data analyses, and collaborated in writing and editing the final manuscript. AIL designed the study and collaborated in writing and editing the final manuscript. DP designed the study, performed the main data analyses, and wrote part of the final version of the paper. PS designed the study, assisted with sample collection, and wrote part of the draft version of the paper. CA, MDV, and AC assisted with sample collection and collaborated in the editing of the manuscript.

Funding Information

Part of these studies were supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sport (FPU13/01677) to CGR; in addition, part of this research was supported by the Chilean National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development, Project N° 8213005 and the Fund for Innovation and Competitiveness (FIC) of the Chilean Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism, through the Millennium Scientific Initiative, Grant N° IS130005 to AIL. All the other authors received no financial support for this research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in these studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the two institutional research committees (Autonomous University of Madrid and Pontifical Catholic University of Chile) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the studies.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos García-Rubio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal
    • 1
  • Alvaro Ignacio Langer
    • 2
    • 3
  • David Paniagua
    • 1
  • Philipp Steinebach
    • 4
  • Catherine Iris Andreu
    • 2
    • 5
  • María Dolores Vara
    • 5
  • Ausiás Cebolla
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Faculty of PsychologyUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Millennium Institute for Depression and Personality Research (MIDAP)SantiagoChile
  3. 3.School of Psychology, Faculty of MedicineUniversidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  4. 4.School of Applied PsychologyZurich University of Applied SciencesWinterthurSwitzerland
  5. 5.Faculty of PsychologyUniversitat de ValènciaValénciaSpain

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