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Psychometric Investigation of the Five Facets of Mindfulness and Well-Being Measures in the Kingdom of Bhutan and the USA

  • Brian W. HaasEmail author
  • Yoshio Akamatsu



Mindfulness is derived from Eastern and Buddhist traditions and is associated with the improvement of psychological well-being (WB). However, many empirical approaches designed to measure dispositional mindfulness and WB have been developed and validated within Western and non-Buddhist cultural contexts. Here, we sought to investigate the structure of dispositional mindfulness and WB in the Kingdom of Bhutan, a country characterized by an Eastern, Buddhist cultural context.


Self-report data were collected using the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and standardized WB (hedonic and eudaimonic) measures in Bhutan and in the USA. Data were subjected to a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the factor structure of each measure in both samples.


For the FFMQ, we found that a four-factor correlated model (excluding the observe facet) best fit the sample data in Bhutan and in the USA. For WB, we did not observe a clear distinction in terms of goodness of fit indices between the one- and two-factor hierarchical models. We did observe that across both samples, the hedonia and eudaimonia WB factors were highly correlated with one another suggesting that a one-factor solution may be optimal. Multigroup CFA analysis demonstrated that while the majority of models displayed adequate configural invariance, the only model displaying adequate metric invariance was the hierarchical four-factor model of the FFMQ data.


These findings suggest that the way mindfulness and WB are conceptualized in a country characterized by an Eastern and Buddhist cultural context is different than in the USA.


Mindfulness Well-being Buddhism Bhutan Confirmatory factor analysis 


Authors’ Contributions

BWH designed the study, executed the study, performed data analyses, and wrote the initial version of the manuscript. YA assisted with data collection and edited the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures involving human participants performed in studies were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration. The University of Georgia IRB approved this study.

Informed Consent

All participants provided informed consent to be included in this study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Sherubtse CollegeRoyal University of BhutanThimphuBhutan
  3. 3.The Center for Southeast Asian StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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