Advertisement

Mindfulness and Empathy: Differential Effects of Explicit and Implicit Buddhist Teachings

Abstract

Several authors argue that interpersonal changes such as benevolence, compassion, and empathy should naturally emerge from a diligent practice of mindfulness. While empirical data from secularized and standardized mindfulness interventions do not fully support this assumption, a group of authors suggest that making underlying Buddhist teachings explicit within mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) might be a key factor in the modification of such culturally rooted aspects of interpersonal functioning. In order to investigate this suggestion, we compared a mindfulness program that explicitly integrates elements of Buddhist ethics (i.e., the four immeasurables) and wisdom (i.e., interdependency, non-self, common humanity) (ethics-oriented mindfulness training (EMT)), to a standard mindfulness training (SMT) program and a control group (i.e., waiting list), with a randomized controlled design in a community sample. Empathy components (i.e., affective responding, mentalization, emotion regulation, and behavioral responding), as well as variables that are typically associated with MBIs (i.e., mindfulness, self-compassion, and well-being) were assessed using multi-dimensional measures (i.e., self-reported, behavioral, physiological). Results showed no overall effects on empathy of our interventions in comparison with our control group. With regard to other variables, we found specific effects for each of our interventions. Whereas SMT led to a stable increase in mindfulness (Cohen’s d = .7), EMT led instead to increases in self-compassion (Cohen’s d = .8) and subjective well-being (Cohen’s d = .54). Although challenging theoretical expectations, we posit that our lack of empathy effects might be explained by several factors such as program structure, individual differences, and culture.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Alberts, H. J. E. M., Schneider, F., & Martijn, C. (2012). Dealing efficiently with emotions: Acceptance-based coping with negative emotions requires fewer resources than suppression. Cognition & Emotion, 26(5), 863–870. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2011.625402.

  2. Amaro, A. (2015). A holistic mindfulness. Mindfulness, 6(1), 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0382-3.

  3. Avants, S. K., & Margolin, A. (2004). Development of spiritual self-schema (3-S) therapy for the treatment of addictive and HIV risk behavior: a convergence of cognitive and Buddhist psychology. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 14(3), 253–289. https://doi.org/10.1037/1053-0479.14.3.253.

  4. Azam, M. A., Katz, J., Fashler, S. R., Changoor, T., Azargive, S., & Ritvo, P. (2015). Heart rate variability is enhanced in controls but not maladaptive perfectionists during brief mindfulness meditation following stress-induction: a stratified-randomized trial. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(1), 27–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.06.005.

  5. Baer, R. A. (2015). Ethics, values, virtues, and character strengths in mindfulness-based interventions: a psychological science perspective. Mindfulness, 6(4), 956–969. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-015-0419-2.

  6. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191105283504.

  7. Batson, C. D. (2009). These things called empathy: eight related but distinct phenomena. In J. Decety & W. Ickes (Eds.), The social neuroscience of empathy (pp. 3–15). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

  8. Black, D. S., & Slavich, G. M. (2016). Mindfulness meditation and the immune system: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1373(1), 13–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12998.

  9. Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. C., Rhatigan, D. L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2007). The case for mindfulness-based approaches in the cultivation of empathy: does nonjudgmental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective-taking and empathic concern? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 501–516. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00034.x.

  10. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes, 84(4), 822–848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.

  11. Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(1), 23–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-007-9130-7.

  12. Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucom, D. H. (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 471–494. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80028-5.

  13. Chiesa, A., Calati, R., & Serretti, A. (2011). Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(3), 449–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.11.003.

  14. Condon, P., Desbordes, G., Miller, W. B., & DeSteno, D. (2013). Meditation increases compassionate responses to suffering. Psychological Science, 24(10), 2125–2127. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613485603.

  15. Crane, R. S., Eames, C., Kuyken, W., Hastings, R. P., Williams, J. M. G., Bartley, J., et al. (2013). Development and validation of the mindfulness-based interventions—teaching assessment criteria (MBI:TAC). Assessment, 20(6), 681–688. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191113490790.

  16. Davis, M. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/.

  17. Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3(2), 71–100. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534582304267187.

  18. Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2006). A social-neuroscience perspective on empathy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(2), 54–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00406.x.

  19. Derogatis, L. R. (1977). SCL90: administration, scoring and procedure manual-I for the R(revised) version. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

  20. Desbordes, G., Negi, L. T., Pace, T. W. W., Wallace, B. A., Raison, C. L., & Schwartz, E. L. (2012). Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00292.

  21. Doherty, R. W. (1997). The emotional contagion scale: a measure of individual differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21(2), 131–154. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024956003661.

  22. Erisman, S. M., & Roemer, L. (2010). A preliminary investigation of the effects of experimentally induced mindfulness on emotional responding to film clips. Emotion, 10(1), 72–82. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017162.

  23. Feldman, C., & Kuyken, W. (2011). Compassion in the landscape of suffering. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 143–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639947.2011.564831.

  24. Galante, J., Bekkers, M.-J., Mitchell, C., & Gallacher, J. (2016). Loving-kindness meditation effects on well-being and altruism: a mixed-methods online RCT. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 8(3), 322–350. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12074.

  25. Gilbert, P., & Choden. (2013). Mindful compassion: using the power of mindfulness and compassion to transform our lives. London: Robinson.

  26. Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13(6), 353–379. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.507.

  27. Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Matos, M., & Rivis, A. (2011). Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 84(3), 239–255. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608310X526511.

  28. Greenberg, M. T., & Mitra, J. L. (2015). From mindfulness to right mindfulness: the intersection of awareness and ethics. Mindfulness, 6(1), 74–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0384-1.

  29. Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1034–1040. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022713.

  30. Grossman, P., & Van Dam, N. T. (2011). Mindfulness, by any other name…: trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 219–239. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639947.2011.564841.

  31. Grynberg, D., Heeren, A., & Luminet, O. (2012). Development and validation of the vicarious distress questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 44(2), 138–145. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027509.

  32. Grynberg, D., Bayot, M., & Vermeulen, N. (submitted). Validation of the French version of the emotional contagion scale. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

  33. Guttman, H. A., & Laporte, L. (2000). Empathy in families of women with borderline personality disorder, anorexia nervosa, and a control group. Family Process, 39(3), 345–358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2000.39306.x.

  34. Hanson, R., & Mendius, R. (2009). Buddha’s brain: The practical neuroscience of happiness, love, and wisdom. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

  35. Heeren, A., Van Broeck, N., & Philippot, P. (2009). The effects of mindfulness on executive processes and autobiographical memory specificity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(5), 403–409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.01.017.

  36. Hildebrandt, L. K., McCall, C., & Singer, T. (2017). Differential effects of attention-, compassion-, and socio-cognitively based mental practices on self-reports of mindfulness and compassion. Mindfulness, 8(6), 1488–1512. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0716-z.

  37. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018555.

  38. Jinpa, T. (2015). A fearless heart: why compassion is the key to greater wellbeing. London: Piatkus.

  39. Jones, S. M., & Hansen, W. (2015). The impact of mindfulness on supportive communication skills: three exploratory studies. Mindfulness, 6(5), 1115–1128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0362-7.

  40. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-8343(82)90026-3.

  41. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016.

  42. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Some reflections on the origins of MBSR, skillful means, and the trouble with maps. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 281–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639947.2011.564844.

  43. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness (rev. edn.). New York: Bantam.

  44. Keng, S.-L., Smoski, M. J., Robins, C. J., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantley, J. G. (2012). Mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based stress reduction: self-compassion and mindfulness as mediators of intervention outcomes. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26(3), 270–280. https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.26.3.270.

  45. Klimecki, O. M., Leiberg, S., Lamm, C., & Singer, T. (2012). Functional neural plasticity and associated changes in positive affect after compassion training. Cerebral Cortex, 23(7), 1552–1561. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhs142.

  46. Klimecki, O. M., Leiberg, S., Ricard, M., & Singer, T. (2013). Differential pattern of functional brain plasticity after compassion and empathy training. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(6), 873–879. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nst060.

  47. Kristeller, J. L., & Johnson, T. (2005). Cultivating loving kindness: a two-stage model of the effects of meditation on empathy, compassion, and altruism. Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science, 40(2), 391–407. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9744.2005.00671.x.

  48. Kugel, H., Eichmann, M., Dannlowski, U., Ohrmann, P., Bauer, J., Arolt, V., et al. (2008). Alexithymic features and automatic amygdala reactivity to facial emotion. Neuroscience Letters, 435(1), 40–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.02.005.

  49. Kuyken, W., Warren, F. C., Taylor, R. S., Whalley, B., Crane, C., Bondolfi, G., et al. (2016). Efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in prevention of depressive relapse: an individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized trials. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(6), 565–574. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0076.

  50. Lama, D. (1999). Ancient wisdom, modern world: ethics for the new millennium. London: Abacus.

  51. Leiberg, S., Klimecki, O., & Singer, T. (2011). Short-term compassion training increases prosocial behavior in a newly developed prosocial game. PLoS One, 6(3), e17798. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017798.

  52. Lesh, T. V. (1970). Zen meditation and the development of empathy in counselors. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 10(1), 39–74. https://doi.org/10.1177/002216787001000105.

  53. Lim, D., Condon, P., & DeSteno, D. (2015). Mindfulness and compassion: an examination of mechanism and scalability. PLoS One, 10(2), e0118221. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118221.

  54. MacDonald, H. Z., & Price, J. L. (2017). Emotional understanding: examining alexithymia as a mediator of the relationship between mindfulness and empathy. Mindfulness, 8(6), 1644–1652. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0739-5.

  55. Martins, D., Nicholas, N. A., Shaheen, M., Jones, L., & Norris, K. (2013). The development and evaluation of a compassion scale. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 24(3), 1235–1246. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2013.0148.

  56. Mascaro, J. S., Rilling, J. K., Tenzin Negi, L., & Raison, C. L. (2013). Compassion meditation enhances empathic accuracy and related neural activity. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 48–55. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nss095.

  57. McMahan, D. (2015). Mindfulness as self-cultivation in ancient and modern contexts. Oral presentation presented at the mindfulness and compassion: the art and science of contemplative practice. San Francisco, CA: San Francisco State University.

  58. Monteiro, L. M., Musten, R. F., & Compson, J. (2015). Traditional and contemporary mindfulness: finding the middle path in the tangle of concerns. Mindfulness, 6(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0301-7.

  59. Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2(3), 223–250. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309027.

  60. Nelis, D., Kotsou, I., Quoidbach, J., Hansenne, M., Weytens, F., Dupuis, P., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability. Emotion, 11(2), 354–366. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021554.

  61. Nozaki, Y. (2015). Emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person. Emotion, 15(6), 763–774. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000081.

  62. Parsons, C. E., Crane, C., Parsons, L. J., Fjorback, L. O., & Kuyken, W. (2017). Home practice in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of participants’ mindfulness practice and its association with outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 95, 29–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.004.

  63. Pellet, J. (1997). La symptom checklist. In J. D. Guelfi (Ed.), L’évaluation clinique standardisée en psychiatrie. Société d’Imprimerie Artistique: Lavaur.

  64. Penberthy, J. K., Williams, S., Hook, J. N., Le, N., Bloch, J., Forsyth, J., et al. (2016). Impact of a Tibetan Buddhist meditation course and application of related modern contemplative practices on college students’ psychological well-being: a pilot study. Mindfulness, 8(4), 911–919. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0665-y.

  65. Phang, C.-K., & Oei, T. P. S. (2012). From mindfulness to meta-mindfulness: further integration of meta-mindfulness concept and strategies into cognitive-behavioral therapy. Mindfulness, 3(2), 104–116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0084-z.

  66. Purser, R., & Loy, D. (2013). Beyond McMindfulness [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ron-purser/beyond-mcmindfulness_b_3519289.html

  67. Raes, F., Pommier, E., Neff, K. D., & Van Gucht, D. (2011). Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the self-compassion scale. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18(3), 250–255. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.702.

  68. Ridderinkhof, A., de Bruin, E. I., Brummelman, E., & Bögels, S. M. (2017). Does mindfulness meditation increase empathy? An experiment. Self and Identity, 16(3), 251–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2016.1269667.

  69. Salzberg, S. (1995). Loving-kindness: the revolutionary art of happiness. Boston: Shambala Publications.

  70. Schoendorff, B., Roberts, S., & Bergeron, K. (2012). Translation of the short-form self-compassion scale validated by Raes et al. (2011). Centre d’études sur les troubles obsessionnels compulsifs et les tics du Centre de recherche Fernand-Seguin (Hôpital Louis-H. Lafontaine de Montréal).

  71. Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2014). A meta-analytic review of the effects of mindfulness meditation on telomerase activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 42, 45–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.12.017.

  72. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2001). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: The Guilford Press.

  73. Shapiro, S., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581–599. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018700829825.

  74. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Dunn, T. J., Singh, N. N., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). Meditation awareness training (MAT) for work-related wellbeing and job performance: a randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(6), 806–823. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-014-9513-2.

  75. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014b). Meditation awareness training (MAT) for improved psychological well-being: A qualitative examination of participant experiences. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(3), 849–863. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-013-9679-0.

  76. Strauss, C., Lever Taylor, B., Gu, J., Kuyken, W., Baer, R., Jones, F., & Cavanagh, K. (2016). What is compassion and how can we measure it? A review of definitions and measures. Clinical Psychology Review, 47, 15–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.05.004.

  77. Tan, L. B. G., Lo, B. C. Y., & Macrae, C. N. (2014). Brief mindfulness meditation improves mental state attribution and empathizing. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e110510. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110510.

  78. Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., et al. (2007). The Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5(1), 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-5-63.

  79. Trousselard, M., Steiler, D., Raphel, C., Cian, C., Duymedjian, R., Claverie, D., & Canini, F. (2010). Validation of a French version of the Freiburg mindfulness inventory-short version: relationships between mindfulness and stress in an adult population. Biopsychosocial Medicine, 4, 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0759-4-8.

  80. Trousselard, M., Steiler, D., Dutheil, F., Claverie, D., Canini, F., Fenouillet, F., et al. (2016). Validation of the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS) in French psychiatric and general populations. Psychiatry Research, 245, 282–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.08.050.

  81. Turnbull, L., & Dawson, G. (2006). Is mindfulness the new opiate of the masses? Critical reflections from a Buddhist perspective. Psychotherapy in Australia, 12(4), 60–64 Retrieved from https://search.informit.com.au/.

  82. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Towards a second generation of mindfulness-based interventions. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(7), 591–592. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867415577437.

  83. Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1543–1555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.025.

  84. Wallace, B. A. (2001). Intersubjectivity in indo-Tibetan Buddhism. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(5–7), 209–230 Retrieved from http://www.ingentaconnect.com/.

  85. Wallmark, E., Safarzadeh, K., Daukantaitė, D., & Maddux, R. E. (2013). Promoting altruism through meditation: an 8-week randomized controlled pilot study. Mindfulness, 4(3), 223–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0115-4.

  86. Walton, G. M. (2014). The new science of wise psychological interventions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(1), 73–82. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721413512856.

  87. Weng, H. Y., Fox, A. S., Shackman, A. J., Stodola, D. E., Caldwell, J. Z. K., Olson, M. C., et al. (2013). Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering. Psychological Science, 24(7), 1171–1180. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612469537.

  88. Wesselmann, E. D., Wirth, J. H., Pryor, J. B., Reeder, G. D., & Williams, K. D. (2013). When do we ostracize? Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(1), 108–115. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550612443386.

  89. Williams, K. D., & Jarvis, B. (2006). Cyberball: a program for use in research on interpersonal ostracism and acceptance. Behavior Research Methods, 38(1), 174–180. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03192765.

  90. Winning, A. P., & Boag, S. (2015). Does brief mindfulness training increase empathy? The role of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 492–498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.011.

  91. Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19(2), 597–605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2010.03.014.

Download references

Author information

MB designed and executed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. NV assisted with the data analyses and collaborated with the design and writing of the study. AK collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript. MM collaborated with the design and writing of the study.

Correspondence to Marie Bayot.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics Statement

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Université catholique de Louvain, in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

All individual participants included in the study gave their informed consent prior to data collection.

Electronic Supplementary Material

ESM 1

(DOCX 87.4 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bayot, M., Vermeulen, N., Kever, A. et al. Mindfulness and Empathy: Differential Effects of Explicit and Implicit Buddhist Teachings. Mindfulness 11, 5–17 (2020) doi:10.1007/s12671-018-0966-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Buddhism
  • Ethics
  • Four immeasurables
  • (self-)compassion
  • Second-generation mindfulness-based interventions