, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 122–130 | Cite as

Cost Analysis of Ingredients for Successful Implementation of a Mindfulness-Based Professional Development Program for Teachers

  • Sebrina L. DoyleEmail author
  • Joshua L. Brown
  • Damira Rasheed
  • Damon E. Jones
  • Patricia A. Jennings


This study examined the cost of implementing the Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE) for Teachers professional development program during a randomized controlled trial targeting a diverse sample of public elementary school teachers in New York City. Detailed budget information collected during the study was used to identify the cost of all necessary resources associated with program implementation. The largest expense category was opportunity costs associated with teacher participation, accounting for over 40% of the total cost. This was closely followed by the program-required costs related to coordination, facilitation, and supplies for the program (31.8%). Finally, ancillary costs related to facilitator travel, room rental, and food for the program implementations encompassed 11% of the total cost. Across all three program implementations, 118 teachers were trained; the average cost per teacher was US$1217 when accounting for all categories. In future cost projections for a training with 30 teachers, the price per teacher is only US$515 when considering program-required and indirect costs. The costs for implementing the CARE for Teachers program are similar to those reported for other mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). This paper provides a detailed analysis of the full cost of providing an evidence-based MBI to teachers in a public education setting. This research can help inform communities interested in funding future CARE for Teachers program implementations, provide an example for cost reporting for other MBIs, and provide a basis for future cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost analyses.


Professional development Mindfulness-based interventions Teachers Cost analysis Ingredients 



We would like to thank the teachers and administration in the New York City schools and the NYC Department of Education. Without your participation and support, this work is not possible.

Author Contributions

SLD: designed and executed current study, collected and analyzed data, and was the primary author of the paper. JLB: collaborated on the design and execution of the current study, assisted with writing and editing of paper, and designed and executed parent study. DR: assisted with data collection and study design and assisted with writing and editing of paper. DJ: collaborated on the design and writing of the current study and assisted with editing of the paper. PAJ: assisted with design and execution of current study, assisted with editing of the paper, and designed and executed parent study.


The project described was supported by the Grant Award R305A120180 from the Institute of Educational Sciences (IES). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Institute of Educational Sciences or the US Department of Education.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Pennsylvania State University, University of Virginia, and the New York City Department of Education Internal Review Boards, and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebrina L. Doyle
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joshua L. Brown
    • 2
  • Damira Rasheed
    • 2
  • Damon E. Jones
    • 1
  • Patricia A. Jennings
    • 3
  1. 1.Bennett Pierce Prevention Research CenterPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Fordham UniversityBronxUSA
  3. 3.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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