Screening Assessment of Renal Function Status in Healthy Smoking Volunteers
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The study objective was to evaluate the renal function status in overall healthy smokers. Renal function status was studied in 61 apparently healthy smokers aged 21–64 years (49 males and 12 females). The evaluation included taking a history with the smoking status assessment, a physical examination with assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood and urine biochemistry, and calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR; CKD-EPI, 2009). The period of observation lasted for 7 days. High blood pressure and obesity had no impact on the kidney function (p > 0.05). Healthy smoking volunteers initially had a high GFR and a “high-normal” urine albumin level as compared to the group of healthy non-smokers (р = 0.000 and р = 0.012, respectively). The risk analysis showed that smoking increased 11-fold the risk of hyperfiltration (RR = 11.1, CI 95% 1.57–76.51, p = 0.001) and 5-fold the occurrence of albuminuria (RR = 5.1, CI 95% 0.71–36.99, p = 0.009) in smokers without initial renal pathology as compared to never-smokers. Those who abstained from smoking showed a moderate decrease of albuminuria (p = 0.049). Systematic tobacco consumption contributes to the development of a renal dysfunction with the occurrence of albuminuria and hyperfiltration (GFR ≥ 125 ml/min/1.73 m2). Timely smoking cessation promotes the regression of albuminuria.
KeywordsKidney Smoking Renal function Albuminuria
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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