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BioNanoScience

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 937–951 | Cite as

Time-Dependent Nonlinear Convective Flow and Radiative Heat Transfer of Cu-Al2O3-H2O Hybrid Nanoliquid with Polar Particles Suspension: a Statistical and Exact Analysis

  • Joby Mackolil
  • B. MahantheshEmail author
Article
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

The statistical and exact analysis of heat transfer rate and skin friction coefficient of a nonlinear convective flow of Cu − Al2O3 − H2O hybrid nanofluid with polar particle suspension is performed. The heat transport phenomenon includes radiative heat effect. A micropolar fluid model is accounted. Exact solutions to the governing problem are found via Laplace transform method (LTM). The heat transfer rate and skin friction are analysed critically via statistical methods like probable error and regression models. The slope of linear regression of data points for skin friction and Nusselt number is estimated to quantify the increase/decrease. The Nusselt number and thermophysical properties for twenty-four different hybrid nanofluids are presented. A novel idea of a nonlinear convective flow of Cu − Al2O3 − H2O hybrid nanofluid with polar particle suspension is investigated for the first time. Opposite behaviour of velocity and microrotation profile are established when the physical parameters are varied.

Keywords

Micropolar fluid; hybrid nanofluid Nonlinear convection Thermal radiation Laplace transform method Regression analysis Probable error 

Nomenclature

\( \overrightarrow{V} \)

Fluid velocity vector (m/s)

T

Temperature (K)

\( \overrightarrow{N} \)

Microrotation vector

cp

Effective specific heat coefficient of fluid (J/kg K)

g

Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

p

Pressure (kg/m s2)

K

Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

k

Rosseland mean absorption coefficient

b

Body force

t

Time (s)

j

Micro-inertia density

I

Body couple per unit mass

U

Characteristic velocity

Gr

Thermal Grashof number

R

Thermal radiation parameter

Pr

Prandtl number

Constants

a1 − a13b1, b2

Symbols denoting the expressions involving constants.

Greek symbols

βT

Thermal expansion coefficient

α, λ

Spin-gradient viscosity coefficient

ν

Kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

μ

Dynamic viscosity (kg/m s)

ɸ

Nanoparticle volume fraction

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

σ

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

κ1

Vortex viscosity

η

Spin-gradient viscosity

κ

Microrotation parameter

γ

Nonlinear convection parameter

Subscripts

f

Base fluid

hnf

Hybrid nanofluid

Cu, Al2O3

Nanoparticles

Functions

Z1 − Z6

Symbols denoting the definition of functions

Mathematics Subject Classification

76Dxx 76Nxx 76Rxx 62Jxx 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We express our sincere thanks to the Management, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Banglore, India for their support to complete this work. Further, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to the Editors and anonymous Reviewers for their constructive suggestions to enhance the quality of the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors report no conflict of interests.

Research Involving Humans and Animals Statement

None.

Informed Consent

None.

Funding Information

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsCHRIST (Deemed to be University)BangaloreIndia

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