, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 553–563 | Cite as

Comparative Analysis of Toxicity Induced by Different Synthetic Silver Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

  • Atif YaqubEmail author
  • Sarwar Allah Ditta
  • Khalid Mahmood Anjum
  • Fouzia Tanvir
  • Naila Malkani
  • Muhammad Zubair Yousaf


Use of nanoparticles for various industrial and biomedical applications has emerged in recent years rapidly, but their accumulation in the environment has raised concerns for their ecotoxicological profile. Instead of halting their use, emphasis should be laid to the development of safer nanoparticles. We prepared silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by chemical synthesis as well by green synthesis method using Ocimum tenuiflorum L. plant. Characterization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (G. AgNPs) and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (C. AgNPs) was performed; UV-visible confirmed the optical absorption peaks at 425 nm (G. AgNPs) and 416 nm (C. AgNPs). SEM imaging confirmed the spherical shaped G. AgNPs (40–60 nm) and C. AgNPs (30–40 nm) with average sizes. FTIR analysis of G. AgNPs confirmed that alkene and aromatic compounds played an important role as capping and reducing agent. We also attempted to evaluate the toxicity profile using a mammalian model, male albino mice (BALB/c)x LD50 of the G. AgNPs and C. AgNPs for mice were found to be 812 mg/kg and 575 mg/kg of the body weight respectively. Liver enzymes were studied from liver tissue and blood serum samples collected from G. AgNP-treated and C. AgNP (100 mg/kg dose)-treated mice for 21 days. We observed a significant decrease in catalase (72.8 versus 86) and GST (0.4 versus 0.32) for G. AgNPs vs C. AgNPs respectively; whereas an increase of SOD is reported (3.05 vs 2.26 respectively). Hence, the development of nanoparticles by green synthesis may be the safer, cost-effective, and eco-friendly option as compared to chemical synthesis.


Green synthesis Silver nanoparticles Acute toxicity Oxidative stress Superoxide dismutase Catalase Glutathione-S-transferase 



The authors acknowledge Prof. Dr. Riaz Ahmad (Department of Physics) and Prof. Dr. Shazia Bashir (CASP), Government College University, Lahore, for providing facilities of characterization of nanoparticles.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Animal care and handling were followed the official guidelines of OECD and was submitted by the Ethics Committee of the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Humans and Animals Statement


Informed Consent


Funding Statement



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atif Yaqub
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sarwar Allah Ditta
    • 1
  • Khalid Mahmood Anjum
    • 2
  • Fouzia Tanvir
    • 1
  • Naila Malkani
    • 1
  • Muhammad Zubair Yousaf
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyGovernment College UniversityLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Department of Wildlife and Ecologythe University of Veterinary and Animal SciencesLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesF.C. College UniversityLahorePakistan

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