Comprehensive Analysis of the Major ATPase Activities in the Cow Milk and Their Correlations
The major milk proteins are well-studied but the particular activities of some important enzymes (such as milk ATPases) are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age and lactation time (in comparison, for the black-and-white and Simmental breeds) on the activity levels of the most important ATPases in the milk fat globule membranes (MFGM), as well as those with season parameters, etc. The significant increases were found for the total- and Na+, K+–ATPase activities in MFGM (21–22% and 51–53% for the abovementioned breeds) with the cow age, whereas only small changes in Mg2+-ATPase activity were obtained (6–7%). The activities of all ATPases studied had the pronounced maximum almost in the middle of lactation time. The major correlations of the ATPase activities in MFGM during all four seasons were found. According to the data obtained, the enzyme activities for all MFGM ATPases studied (of both breeds) could be arranged in the following order: Na+, K+–ATPase > Ca2+-ATPase > HCO3−-ATPase ≥ Mg2+-ATPase. The novel regression equations and data obtained can be used to estimate the MFGM ATPase activities without making all the biochemical measurements.
KeywordsBiochemistry Fat globule membranes Nanoparticles ATPases Cow milk
E. Yu. Fedorova, V. I. Maximov, and S. Yu. Zaitsev designed the study and contributed equally to this work; E. Yu. Fedorova and V. I. Maximov performed all experiments and data collections; E. Yu. Fedorova and S. Yu. Zaitsev performed all data analyses. S. Yu. Zaitsev wrote an initial draft of the paper. All authors edited and commented on the final version.
This work was supported by the grant from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 18-16-00207).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The experimental protocols were approved by the Scientific Council of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MVA named after K.I. Skryabin” (Moscow SAVMB). All experiments and conditions (animal care, feeding, biological material sampling, etc.) were fulfilled in accordance with the applicable regulations (internationally recognized guidelines and “STATEMENT of the Ethical Treatment of Animals Used in Research” Moscow SAVMB).
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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