The influence of energy consumption and democratic institutions on output and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh: a time–frequency approach

  • Ali Ahmed
  • Stelios BekirosEmail author
  • Emma Rosklint-Lindvall
  • Gazi Salah Uddin
  • Antonio Salvi
Original Paper


This paper reports the results of a study that investigates the causal interactions among the entities energy consumption, democracy, income, and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh. Bootstrapping causality and time–frequency domain causality methods were adopted to examine the causal co-movements between the variables, using data series for a period of more than four decades. Results show that time-scale behavior plays an important role. Democracy is an important factor for emissions and national income. The nexus of democracy and CO2 emission is bidirectional. The impact of democracy on CO2 is stronger than vice versa. This study provides new insights for policymakers: democratic practices play an important role in implementing climate change policies, at least in the case of Bangladesh.


CO2 emissions Climate policy Democracy Time–frequency causality 

JEL codes

G1 G15 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management and EngineeringLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsEuropean University InstituteFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Department of Acc. & FinanceAthens University of Economics and BusinessAthensGreece
  4. 4.Faculty of EconomicsLUM Jean Monnet UniversityCasamassimaItaly

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