Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Investigation of Flexural Strength and Surface Hardness in Aluminum 2024-T3 Subjected to Shot Peening Process by Ni Shots

  • 2 Accesses


Innovations in finding new materials and material processing methods are important to improve the working life of components. Refinement of surface microstructure improves the overall performance of components (Singh et al. in Trans Indian Inst Met 69:295, 2016). This research paper aims to enhance the flexural strength and hardness of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 by imparting surface residual compressive stress using shot peening technique using nickel shots. The compressive stress layer imparted by shot peening technique is found to modify the existing microstructure in AA2024-T3 specimens. Shot peening is carried out using compressed air in a nozzle with pressure ranging from 0.4 to 0.6 MPa and nozzle to target distance ranging from 30 to 60 mm. Combinations of pressure and distance for performing experiments are obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the obtained combinations, experiments are performed. Flexural strength and surface hardness are found from tests. Optimized parameter values for maximum response are arrived using RSM, and confirmation experiments are done with optimized parameter values. The experiments prove that the flexural strength and hardness values are found to be more than 95% close to predicted values. FESEM test results for specimens peened with optimal parameters, show the presence of nickel in the specimen surface. Shot peening results in alloying of nickel with base material, and thus show the flexural strength and surface hardness improved by 8.80% and 29.7%, respectively. A comparative study is also done on AA2024-T3 specimens before and after shot peening with nickel shots. Test results show a significant hike in flexural strength and surface hardness in AA2024-T3 when shot peened with nickel shots.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. 1.

    Singh V, Pandey V, Kumar S, Santhi Srinivas N C, and Chattopadhyay K, Trans Indian Inst Met69 (2016) 295.

  2. 2.

    Mikova K, Bagherifard S, Bokuvka O, Guagliano M, and Trsko L, Int J Fatigue55 (2013) 33.

  3. 3.

    Nicoletto G, Pastrama S D, Emri I, Zavodska D, Guagliano M, and Bokuvka O, Mater Today Proc3 (2016) 1220.

  4. 4.

    Torres M A S, and Voorwald H J C, Int J Fatigue24 (2002) 877.

  5. 5.

    Carvalho A L M, and Voorwald H J C, Int J Fatigue29 (2007) 1282.

  6. 6.

    Xiang Z D, and Datta P K, Scr Mater55 (2006) 1151.

  7. 7.

    Sathyajith S, and Kalainathan S, Opt Lasers Eng50 (2012) 345.

  8. 8.

    Jia W, Hong Q, Zhao H, Li L, and Han D, Mater Sci Eng A606 (2014) 354.

  9. 9.

    Xie L, Wen Y, Zhan K, Wang L, Jiang C, and Ji V, J Alloys Compd666 (2016) 65.

  10. 10.

    Cho K T, Song K, Oh S H, Lee Y K, Lim K M, and Lee W B, Mater Sci Eng A543 (2012) 44.

  11. 11.

    Oguri K, J Mater Process Technol211 (2011) 1395.

  12. 12.

    Bagherifard S, and Guagliano M, Eng Fract Mech81 (2012) 56.

  13. 13.

    Gariépy A, Larose S, Perron C, Bocher P, and Lévesque M, Finite Elem Anal Des69 (2013) 48.

  14. 14.

    Rodopoulos C A, Curtis S A, de los Rios E R, and SolisRomero J, Int J Fatigue26 (2004) 849.

  15. 15.

    Jamalin M, and DP Field, Mater Charact148 (2019) 9.

  16. 16.

    Vigneshkumar M, Varthanan P A, and Raj Y M A, Trans Indian Inst Met72 (2019) 429.

  17. 17.

    He Y Z, Wang D P, Ying W A, and Zhang H, Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China26 (2016) 1531.

  18. 18.

    Kumar S, Pandey V, Chattopadhyay K, and Singh V, Trans Indian Inst Met72 (2019) 789.

  19. 19.

    Vigneshkumar M, and Varthanan P A, Int J Comput Mater Sci Surf Eng8 (2019) 114.

Download references


The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology (DST) (Grant No. YSS/2015/000762), Government of India for providing funds under young scientist scheme to carry out the research work.

Author information

Correspondence to Rajesh A.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

A, R., P, A.V. Investigation of Flexural Strength and Surface Hardness in Aluminum 2024-T3 Subjected to Shot Peening Process by Ni Shots. Trans Indian Inst Met (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-020-01881-4

Download citation


  • Flexural strength
  • Surface hardness
  • Nickel shots
  • Shot peening