Effect of Hearth Liquid Level on the Productivity of Blast Furnace

  • Ashish AgrawalEmail author
  • Anil Kumar Kothari
  • K. Ramakrishna Rao
  • Padmapal
  • Manish Kumar Singh
Technical Paper


Cast house is the heart of blast furnace operation. A stable blast furnace operation requires proper control of hot metal and slag drainage from the hearth. Various problems are encountered if the hearth liquid level exceeds above a critical limit that leads to an unstable blast furnace condition. Moreover, operating too often to control liquid level is also not recommended, as operational cost is increased and refractory erosion increases. Therefore, there is a need to understand the reason that prevails in the abnormal hearth liquid level situations. Understanding the effect of increased hearth liquid level on blast furnace process parameters will enable blast furnace operation to take the proactive actions of controlling the blast furnace abnormality. In the present review, an attempt is made to establish a correlational research to understand the effect on hearth liquid level on various casting parameters and blast furnace process conditions. The adverse effect of hearth liquid level build-up on the state of dead man, gas permeability, tuyere life, hearth linings, slag delay and furnace wall heat load is studied. The various casting strategies adopted in blast furnace operation are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages, and finally, the recommendations are made to operate the liquid level on narrow band.


Blast furnace Hearth Liquid level Dead man Drainage rate Permeability 



We would like to acknowledge entire BF operation and technology group of Tata Steel Jamshedpur for extending their operational knowledge. We are also grateful to Automation Division Jamshedpur for providing us opportunity to carry out the above work.


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Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Automation DivisionTata Steel LimitedJamshedpurIndia
  2. 2.Blast Furnace OperationTata Steel LimitedJamshedpurIndia

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