Study of Fine-Grained Pure Copper Fabrication by Cyclic Contraction/Expansion Extrusion (CCEE) Using Experimental and Finite Element Simulation Methods

  • Rasoul Asadi Peyghan
  • Hossein JafarzadehEmail author
Technical Paper


The aim of the present research study is to develop a new SPD technique called cyclic contraction/expansion extrusion (CCEE) based on the well-known cyclic extrusion compression and cyclic expansion extrusion methods, used for the production of ultra-fine-grained pure copper. In this new proposed technique, large amount of imposed plastic strains in one cycle of CCEE decreases number of cycles, remarkably, in order to achieve fine grain microstructures. Obtained microstructures were studied using optical microscopy. The obtained results showed that the grain size of as-received material decreased from 14 to 3 μm in the proposed technique. Moreover, hardness of pure copper increased from 120 HV to about 320 HV after plastic deformation, using the proposed technique. Finite element simulation method was implemented to study the plastic deformation during CCEE. Significant effective plastic strain of 3.6 was achieved by one cycle of the CCEE.


Cyclic contraction/expansion extrusion Severe plastic deformation Pure copper FEM 


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Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tabriz BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTabrizIran

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