Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 423–427 | Cite as

Controlling Conditions of Fluidized Bed Chlorination of Upgraded Titania Slag

  • M. H. El-SadekEmail author
  • O. A. Fouad
  • M. B. Morsi
  • K. El-Barawy
Technical Paper


Titanium tetrachloride with 98% purity was successively synthesized by chlorination of upgraded titania slag (88% TiO2, 2.9% Fe2O3) using chlorine gas in the presence of activated charcoal at 1173–1373 K in a fluidized bed chlorinator. The different parameters affecting the chlorination processes such as carbon source, carbon amount, temperature and time of chlorination were studied. Moreover, kinetics of chlorination of upgraded titania slag was studied. The results showed that the chlorination of upgraded titania slag was mainly controlled by diffusion of chlorine gas with calculated apparent activation energy of 11.9 kJ/mole.


Titania slag Chlorination Fluidized bed Activated charcoal Kinetic Activation energy 


  1. 1.
    Bordbar H, Yousefi A, and Abedini H, Polyolefins J 4 (2017) 149.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Niu L P, Ni P Y, Zhang T A, Lv G Z, Zhou A P, Liang X, and Men D, Rare Met 33 (2014) 485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maharajh S, Muller J, and Zietsman J, J South Afr Inst Min Metall 115 (2015) 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moodley S, Kale A, Bessinger D, Kucukkaragoz C, and Erich R H, J South Afr Inst Min Metall 112 (2012) 467.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bergholm A, Trans Metall Soc AIME 221 (1961) 1121.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dunn W, Trans Mellat Soc AIME 218 (1960) 6.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barin I, and Schuler W, Metall Trans B 11 (1980) 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonsack J, and Schneider F, Metall Mater Trans B 32 (2001) 389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sohn H, and Zhou L, Can J Chem Eng 76 (1998) 1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhou L, and Sohn H, AIChE J 42 (1996) 3102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhou L, Sohn H, Whiting G, and Leary K, Ind Eng Chem Res 35 (1996) 954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Niu L, Zhang T, Ni P, LÜ G, and Ouyang K, Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 23 (2013) 3448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Minerals Technology Division, Pyrometallurgy DepartmentCentral Metallurgical R&D Institute (CMRDI)CairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations