Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 307–317 | Cite as

Characterization of Zn–Mn Phosphate Coating Deposited by Cathodic Electrochemical Method

  • Mahmoud HajisafariEmail author
  • Abolghasem Chakerizade
  • Manouchehr Fallah
  • Gh. Barati Darband
Technical Paper


Electrophosphating is a novel method that is used for accelerating the low-temperature phosphating bath. In this study, Zn–Mn phosphate coating was fabricated on mild steel substrate using the cathodic electrochemical method. Afterward, the effect of electrolyte pH and applied current density was investigated on coating properties. Microstructure, phase analysis and corrosion resistance of coating were evaluated using SEM, X-ray diffraction, potentiodynamic, immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests, respectively. Results indicated that the metallic and nonmetallic phases are present in the coating fabricated by the cathodic electrochemical method. The results of the corrosion evaluation tests indicated that the best coating resistance is obtained at pH = 2.5 and 20 mA/cm2 applied current density, due to compact phosphate layer of the coating. By further increase in pH and applied current density, the coating with poor corrosion resistance is formed due to high porosity of coating obtained at these conditions.


Electrophosphating Zn–Mn SEM Corrosion resistance 


  1. 1.
    Narayanan T S, Rev Adv Mater Sci 9 (2005) 130.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Banczek E, Rodrigues P, and Costa I, Surf Coat Technol 202 (2008).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen T-T, Ke S-T, Liu Y-M, and Hou K-H, J Chung Cheng Inst Technol 34 (2006) 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li G, Niu L, Lian J, and Jiang Z, Surf Coat Technol 176 (2004) 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jegannathan S, Arumugam T, Narayanan T S, and Ravichandran K, Progress Org Coat 65 (2009) 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jegannathan S, Narayanan T S, Ravichandran K, and Rajeswari S, Surf Coat Technol 200 (2006) 6014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jegannathan S, Narayanan T S, Ravichandran K, and Rajeswari S, Electrochim Acta, 51 (2005) 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Narayanan T S, Jegannathan S, and Ravichandran K, Prog Org Coat 55 (2006) 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kavitha C, Narayanan T S, Ravichandran K, Park I S, and Lee M H, J Coat Technol Res 11 (2014) 431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Darband G B, and Aliofkhazraei M, Surf Rev Lett 24 (2017) 1730003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Darband G B, Afshar A, and Aliabadi A, Surf Coat Technol (2016).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Darband G B, Afshar A, and Rabani M, J Alloys Compd 688 (2016) 596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Satoh N, Surf Coat Technol 30 (1987) 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Satoh N, and Minami T, Surf Coat Technol 34 (1988) 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tomandl A, Wolpers M, and Ogle K, Corros Sci 46 (2004) 997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lins V d F C, de Andrade Reis G F, de Araujo C R, and Matencio T, Appl Surf Sci 253 (2006) 2875.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Su H-Y, and Lin C-S, Corros Sci 83 (2014) 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang C-M, Liau H-C, and Tsai W-T, Surf Coat Technol 201 (2006) 2994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fouladi M, and Amadeh A, Electrochim Acta 106 (2013) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van Phuong N, Moon S, Chang D, and Lee K H, Appl Surf Sci 264 (2013) 70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wolpers M, and Angeli J, Appl Surf Sci 179 (2001) 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oskuie A, Afshar A, and Hasannejad H, Surf Coat Technol 205 (2010) 2302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shanmugam S, Ravichandran K, Narayanan T S, and Lee M H, RSC Adv 5 (2015) 988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yantapure M, Deshpande P, and Vagge S, Univ Politeh Buchar Sci Bull Ser B Chem Mater Sci 77 (2015) 173.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li G, Lian J, Niu L, and Jiang Z, Adv Eng Mater 8 (2006) 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abdalla K, Azmi R, and Azizan A, in Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publ, pp. 569 (2012).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stansbury E E, and Buchanan R A, Fundamentals of electrochemical corrosion, ASM International (2000).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mansfeld F, Kendig M, and Tsai S, Corrosion 38 (1982) 570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud Hajisafari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abolghasem Chakerizade
    • 2
  • Manouchehr Fallah
    • 1
  • Gh. Barati Darband
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Yazd BranchIslamic Azad UniversityYazdIran
  2. 2.Master of Mechanical EngineeringGas Company of Yazd ProvinceYazdIran
  3. 3.Department of Material Science and EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations