Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 71, Issue 10, pp 2605–2614 | Cite as

Design, Fabrication of Equal Channel Angular Extrusion Process and its Effect on Microstructure and Hardness of Al and Cu Alloys

  • Payank Patel
  • Mithun Mohanan
  • Vishwarajsinh Sarvaiya
  • Vidhi Acharya
  • Dilip Kumar Basa
  • Sujoy Krishna ChaudhuryEmail author
Technical Paper


Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) is considered as an advanced extrusion process, where metal billets are plastically deformed without reducing its cross-sectional area. In this study, a die was designed and fabricated with channel angle and diameter of 110° and 12.44 mm, respectively, for extruding aluminum and copper alloys via ECAE process. The die and punches were made from EN-31 steel and were heat-treated to achieve hardness of 45 HRC. The heat treatment cycle for the die and punch consisted of austenitizing them at 840 °C for 1.5 h, followed by quenching in oil to form martensite, and tempering at 450 °C for 1 h, followed by air cooling to room temperature. The inner surface of channel in the die was electroplated with hard chrome. Aluminum and copper alloys were successfully extruded by ECAE process at room temperature. Aluminum and brass samples were subjected to single pass, whereas copper sample was subjected to double pass during ECAE processing. Microstructures of ECAE-processed aluminum and copper samples were examined under optical microscope, and hardness was measured. Microstructural examination shows significant grain refinement in ECAE-processed samples as compared to as-received billets. The hardness of ECAE-processed samples was significantly greater than that of as-received billet.


Equal channel angular extrusion Severe plastic deformation Grain refinement Al alloy Cu alloy 


  1. 1.
    Yogesha K K, Kumar N, Joshi A, Jayaganthan R, and Nath S K, Metallogr Microstruct Anal 5 (2016) 251.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Joshi A, Kumar N, Yogesha K K, Jayaganthan R, and Nath S K, J Mater Eng Perform 25 (2016) 3031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhilyaev A, and Langdon T, Prog Mater Sci 53 (2008) 893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    SunilB R, Mater Manuf Process 30 (2015) 1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang X, Wang H, Kassem M, Narayan J, and Koch C C, Scr Mater 46 (2002) 661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koch C C, Ann Rev Mater Sci 19 (1989) 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Segal V M, Mater Sci Eng A 197 (1995) 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Segal V M, Reznikov V I, Drobyshevskiy A E, and Kopylov V I, Russ Metall 1 (1981) 99.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gholinia A, Prangnell P B, and Markushev M V, Acta Mater 48 (2000) 1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Segal V M, Mater Sci Eng A 271 (1999) 322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Segal V M, Mater Sci Eng A 386 (2004) 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang D, and Li S, Mater Sci Eng A 528 (2011) 4982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sitdikov O, Avtokratova E, and Sakai T, J Alloys Compd 648 (2015) 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fukuda Y, Oh-ishi K, Furukawa M, Horita Z, and Landon T G, Mater Sci Eng A 420 (2006) 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li Z, Zhou S J, and Huang N, Int J Miner Metall Mater 22 (2015) 639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Farrasse F, Segal V M, Hartwig T K, Goforth R E, Metall Mater Trans A 28 (1997) 1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Al-Mufadi F, and Djavanroodi F, Int J Mech Aerosp Ind Mechatron Manuf Eng 8 (2014) 1436.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jin H, Mater Sci Technol 33 (2017) 1696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xiao G, Tao N, and Lu K, Mater Sci Eng A 513514 (2009) 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nemati J, Majzoobi G H, Sulaiman S, Baharuding B T H T, and Hanim M A A, Proc Inst Mech Eng Part C J Mech Eng Sci 228 (2014) 1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prangnell P B, and Browen J R, Mater Sci Eng A 375377 (2004) 178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nemati J, Majzoobi G H, Sulaiman S, Baharudin B T H T, and Hanim M A A, Int J Miner Metall Mater 22 (2015) 395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Payank Patel
    • 1
  • Mithun Mohanan
    • 1
  • Vishwarajsinh Sarvaiya
    • 1
  • Vidhi Acharya
    • 1
  • Dilip Kumar Basa
    • 1
  • Sujoy Krishna Chaudhury
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indus Institute of Technology and EngineeringIndus UniversityAhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations