Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 71, Issue 10, pp 2479–2485 | Cite as

On Development of Functionally Graded Material Through Fused Deposition Modelling Assisted Investment Casting from Al2O3/SiC Reinforced Waste Low Density Polyethylene

  • Narinder Singh
  • Rupinder SinghEmail author
  • I P S Ahuja
Technical Paper


The recycling of packaging materials such as low density polyethylene (LDPE) into useful product is one of the challenging tasks. Since waste LDPE has some issues like low mechanical strength and thermal degradation; some studies have been reported in recent past to improve these properties with ceramic/metallic reinforcements. In this work reusability of LDPE has been ascertained as functionally graded material (FGM) through aluminum (Al) matrix based investment casting (IC). This study highlights the use of SiC and Al2O3 as reinforcement in LDPE for IC applications as a novel method for development of FGM. The master patterns for IC were prepared from reinforced LDPE based feed stock filament (prepared on conventional screw extruder) on open source fused deposition modelling setup. The in-house prepared filament wire was subjected to mechanical and thermal testing to ensure recyclability and stability of the material. The photo micrographs and SEM images were collected to ensure the dispersion of SiC and Al2O3 reinforcements in Al based FGM.


Polymer waste LDPE Fused Deposition Modelling Reinforcements SiC Al2O3 Investment Casting FGM 



The authors are thankful to Department of Science and Technology (GoI) for financial support (DST/TSG/NTS/2014/104) for this project.


  1. 1.
    Zhao L, and Choi P, Mater Manuf Process 21 (2006) 135.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chinnadurai T, Arungalai Vendan S, Rusu C C, and Scutelnicu E, Mater Manuf Process 69141 (2017) 1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nam G J, Yoo J H, and Lee J W, J Appl Polym Sci 96 (2005) 1793.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li S, Xiao M, Guan Y, Wei D, Xiao H, and Zheng A, Eur Poly J 48 (2012) 362.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ozdemir M, and Floros J D, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44 (2004) 185.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Salem S M, Lettieri P, and Baeyens J, Waste Manage 29 (2009) 2625.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    USEPA, Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: (2000) ‘Facts and Figures’ Executive Summary. Office of Solid Waste Management and Emergency Response (5305W), EPA530-S-02-001, June (2002).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    USEPA, Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: (2007) ‘Facts and Figures’ Executive Summary. Office of Solid Waste Management and Emergency Response (5306P), EPA530-R-08-010, November (2008).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zia K M, Bhatti H N, and Bhatti I A, React Funct Polym 67 (2007) 675.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Howard G T, Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 49 (2002) 245.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scheirs J, Polymer Recycling: Science, Technology and Applications. Wiley, Chichester (1998).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lei Y, Wu Q, Yao F, and Xu Y, Compos Part Appl Sci Manuf 38 (2007) 1664.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marzouk O Y, Dheilly R M, and Queneudec M, Waste Manage 27 (2007) 310.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    James A R, Sbarski I, Masood S H, and Kosior E, J Polym Eng 27 (2007) 55.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    La Mantia FP and Dintcheva N T, Macromol Rapid Commun 26 (2005) 361.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sanchez-Soto M, Rossa, A, Sanchez A J, and Gamez-Perez J, Waste Manage 28 (2008) 2565.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ferrando H E, Cribier J F, Vega D, Bosch-Masgrau F, Sánchez-Soto M, and LIMaspoch M, Polym Recycl 6 (2001) 187.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cruz F, Lanza S, Boudaoud H, Hoppe S, and Camargo M, August Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication SymposiumAn Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin, Texas (USA), 2015, pp 10–12.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    EPIC (2003) Environmental and Plastics Industry Council, Management of Plastics in EOL Electronics. Special News and Views Report.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singh R, Singh N, Fabbrocino F, Fraternali F, and Ahuja I P S, Compos Part B Eng 105 (2016) 23.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singh R, and Singh S, Mater Today Proc 2 (2015) 1876.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Singh R, Singh N, Bedi P, Ahuja IPS, Polymer Single-Screw Extrusion With Metal Powder Reinforcement. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2016).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lv F, Yao D, Wang Y, Wang C, Zhu P, and Hong Y, Compos Part B Eng 77 (2015) 232.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Singh K, Nanda T, and Mehta R, Mater Manuf Process 6914 (2017) 1.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tan C L Azmi A I, and Muhammad N, Mater Manuf Process 31 (2016) 1366.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Latha B, and Senthilkumar V S, Mater Manuf Process 25 (2010) 817.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chockalingam P, Kuang K C, and Vijayaram T R, Mater Manuf Process 28 (2013) 1071.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Le M T, and Huang S C, Mater Manuf Process 6914 (2015) 1.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Raj D S, and Karunamoorthy L, Mater Manuf Process 31 (2016) 587.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Srinivasan T, Palanikumar K, Rajagopal K, and Latha B, Mater Manuf Process 32 (2017) 226.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu J, Boo W J, Clearfield A, and Sue H J, Mater Manuf Process 21 (2006) 143.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Palanikumar K, Prakash S, and Shanmugam K, Mater Manuf Process 23 (2008) 858.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Palanikumar K, Mater Manuf Process 25 (2010) 1059.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Palanikumar K, Latha B, Senthilkumar V S, and Davim J P, Mater Manuf Process 27 (2012) 297.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chaudhary V, and Gohil P P, Mater Manuf Process 31 (2016) 960.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Satheesh Raja R, and Manisekar K, Mater Des 89 (2016) 884.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Selvam R, Karunamoorthy L, and Arunkumar N, Mater Manuf Process 32 (2017) 700.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gu L, and Ozbakkaloglu T, Waste Manage 51 (2016) 19.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pacheco-Torgal F, Ding Y, and Jalali S, Constr Build Mater 30 (2012) 714.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saikia N, and de Brito J, Constr Build Mater 34 (2012) 385.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Siddique R, Khatib J, and Kaur I, Waste Manage 28 (2008) 1835.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Singh N, Hui D, Singh R, Ahuja I P S, Feo L, and Fraternali F, Compos Part B Eng 115 (2017) 409.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Basalp D, and Tihminlioğlu F, J Therm Anal Calorim 94 (2008) 757.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pal K, Panwar V, Friedrich S, and Gehde M, Mater Manuf Process 31 (2016) 372.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Luo J, Liang Y, Yang J, Niu H, Dong J Y, and Han C C, Polymer 52 (2011) 4590.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Indian Patent Application No. 2847/DEL/2013, Dated 26-09-2013, Development of Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) by Two Stages Hybridization of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and Investment Casting (IC).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPunjabi UniversityPatialaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Production EngineeringGuru Nanak Dev Engineering CollegeLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations