Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 71, Issue 10, pp 2453–2463 | Cite as

Preparation of Industrial Manganese Compound from a Low-Grade Spessartine Ore by Hydrometallurgical Process

  • Alafara A. BabaEmail author
  • Aishat Y. AbdulkareemEmail author
  • Mustapha A. Raji
  • Kuranga I. Ayinla
  • Folahan A. Adekola
  • Rafiu B. Bale
  • Malay K. Ghosh
Technical Paper


The increasing global demands for pure manganese in steel production and manganese compound as dietary additives, fertilizer, pigment, cells and fine chemicals production cannot be over-emphasized. Thus, continuous efforts in developing low cost and eco-friendly route for purifying the manganese ore to meet some defined industrial demands become paramount. Therefore, this study focused on reductive leaching and solvent extraction techniques for the purification of a Nigerian manganese ore containing admixture of spessartine (O96.00Mn24.00Al16.00Si24.00) and quartz (Si3.00O6.00). During leaching, parameters such as leachant concentration and reaction temperature on the extent of ore dissolution were examined accordingly for the establishment of extraction conditions. At optimal leaching conditions (1.5 mol/L H2SO4 + 0.2 g spent tea, 75 °C), 80.2% of the initial 10 g/L ore reacted within 120 min. The derived dissolution activation energy (Ea) of 35.5 kJ/mol supported the diffusion reaction mechanism. Thus, the leachate at optimal leaching was appropriately treated by alkaline precipitation and solvent extraction techniques using sodium hydroxide and (di-2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) respectively, to obtain pure manganese solution. The purified solution was further beneficiated to obtain manganese sulphate monohydrate (MnSO4.H2O, melting point = 692.4 °C: 47-304-7403) of high industrial value. The unleached residue (~ 19.8%) analyzed by XRD consisted of silicileous impurities (SiO2) which could serve as an important by-product for some defined industries.


Spessartine ore Nigeria Manganese Manganese compound Reductive leaching Solvent extraction D2EHPA 



The authors are grateful to: Miranda Waldron of the Centre for Imaging & Analysis, University of Cape Town, South Africa for assisting with SEM & EDS analyses. Central Research Laboratories, University of Ilorin, Nigeria for assisting in aqueous metal analyses by AAS. Hydro & Electrometallurgy Department of the CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar-751013, India for their benevolence in supplying the D2EHPA extractant used in this study.


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Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alafara A. Baba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aishat Y. Abdulkareem
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mustapha A. Raji
    • 1
  • Kuranga I. Ayinla
    • 1
  • Folahan A. Adekola
    • 1
  • Rafiu B. Bale
    • 3
  • Malay K. Ghosh
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Industrial ChemistryUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  2. 2.National Mathematical CentreSheda-KwaliAbujaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Geology and Mineral SciencesUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  4. 4.CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials TechnologyBhubaneswarIndia

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