Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Behavioral characteristics and structural stability of the walls in the ancient Korean Royal Tombs from the sixth century Baekje Kingdom

  • 49 Accesses


The Royal Tombs at Songsanri have played considerable roles in the study of Baekje history since the Royal Tomb of King Muryeong was excavated, in untouched condition, in 1971. However, the stability of the Royal Tombs at Songsanri has been threatened by constant exposure to the external environment and infiltration by rainwater. In this study, behavioral monitoring of the walls was conducted using tilt sensors to obtain very precise data about the deformation of the structurally vulnerable walls, evaluate their behavioral characteristics and the influence of environmental changes on these behaviors, and diagnose the structural stability of the ancient tombs. In tomb no. 5, with the exception of relatively rapid behavioral changes attributed to the stabilization process of the tilt sensors, the walls remained stable. However, abnormal changes were observed at several positions in the walls of tomb no. 6 and the Royal Tomb of King Muryeong. These changes were attributed to environmental changes. Furthermore, the abnormal changes in the walls were found to coincide with increases in the soil water content due to rainfall and artificial environmental changes caused by the investigations in the tombs. These findings are expected to be useful in creating policies and designing countermeasures to preserve these historically and culturally valuable tombs.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. Addabbo T, Fort A, Mugnaini M, Panzardi E, Pozzebon A (2019) A city-scale IoT architecture for monumental structures monitoring. Measurement 131:349–357

  2. Basto C, Pelà L, Chacón R (2017) Open-source digital technologies for low-cost monitoring of historical constructions. J Cultural Heritage 25:31–40

  3. Binda L, Saisi A, Tiraboschi C (2000) Investigation procedures for the diagnosis of historic masonries. Constr Build Mater 14:199–233

  4. Burland JB, Jamiolkowski M, Viggiani C (1998) Establishing the leaning tower of Pisa. Bull Eng Geol Env 57:91–99

  5. Cultural Heritage Administration (1974) Excavation report of the Royal Tomb of King Muryeong. Research Report, pp 1–286

  6. Gentile C, Guidobaldi M, Saisi A (2016) One-year dynamic monitoring of a historic tower: damage detection under changing environment. Meccanica 51:2873–2889

  7. Han KS (2011) Making technique studies of mural paintings in the no. 6 tomb of Songsanri, Gongju. J Conserv Sci 27:451–458

  8. Hester J, Prabhu S, Atamturktur S, Sorber J (2017) Remote and wireless long-term vibration monitoring of historic monuments. Procedia Eng 199:3302–3307

  9. Jang SY, Lee CH (2013) Production and supply of bricks from the Songsanri Tomb Complex. Korean Ancient Hist Soc 82:27–53

  10. Jo YH, Lee CH (2014) Behavioral monitoring and stability evaluation of Korean stone pagoda in Magoksa Temple using tiltmeter sensor. Int J Appl Eng Res 9:14659–14668

  11. Kim HS, Cha GC, Jung SJ, Kim WJ, Bae BS, Kim DM (2012) Structural behavior analysis of arched stone bridges considering arch types. J Architect Inst Korea Struct Constr 28:91–98

  12. Kita A, Cavalagli N, Ubertini F (2019) Temperature effects on static and dynamic behavior of Consoli Palace in Gubbio, Italy. Mech Syst Signal Process 120:180–202

  13. Kümpel H-J, Peters JA, Bower DR (1988) Nontidal tilt and water table variations in a seismically active region in Quebec, Canada. Tectonophysics 152:253–265

  14. Lee SK (1993) Shallow-depth tilt monitoring for engineering application. J Eng Geol 3:279–293

  15. Lorenzoni F, Casarin F, Caldon M, Islami K, Modena C (2016) Uncertainty quantification in structural health monitoring: applications on cultural heritage buildings. Mech Syst Signal Process 66–67:268–281

  16. Masciotta MG, Ramos LF, Lourenço PB (2017) The importance of structural monitoring as a diagnosis and control tool in the restoration process of heritage structures: a case study in Portugal. J Cultural Heritage 27:36–47

  17. Mesquita E, Arêde A, Pinto N, Antunes P, Varum H (2018) Long-term monitoring of a damaged historic structure using a wireless sensor network. Eng Struct 161:108–117

  18. Moreira VN, Fernandes J, Matos JC, Oliveira DV (2016) Reliability-based assessment of existing masonry arch railway bridges. Constr Build Mater 115:544–554

  19. Roje-Bonacci T, Miščević P, Salvezani D (2014) Non-destructive monitoring methods as indicators of damage caused on Cathedral of St. Lawrence in Trogir, Croatia. J Cultural Heritage 15:424–431

  20. Saisi A, Gentile C, Ruccolo A (2016) Pre-diagnostic prompt investigation and static monitoring of a historic bell-tower. Constr Build Mater 122:833–844

  21. Saisi A, Gentile C, Ruccolo A (2017) Static and dynamic monitoring of a cultural heritage bell-tower in Monza, Italy. Procedia Eng 199:3356–3361

  22. Suh MC, Park EJ (1997) Characteristics of subsurface movement and safety of the Songsanri tomb site of the Baekje dynasty using tiltmeter system. J Eng Geol 7:191–205

  23. Tóth AR, Orbán Z, Bagi K (2009) Discrete element analysis of a stone masonry arch. Mech Res Commun 36:469–480

  24. Ubertini F, Gabriele C, Cavalagli N (2016) Vibration-based structural health monitoring of a historic bell-tower using output-only measurements and multivariate statistical analysis. Struct Health Monit 15:438–457

  25. Ubertini F, Gabriele C, Cavalagli N, Pisello AL, Materazzi AL, Cotana F (2017) Environmental effects on natural frequencies of the San Pietro bell tower in Perugia, Italy, and their removal for structural performance assessment. Mech Syst Signal Process 82:307–322

  26. Verstrynge E, Wilder K, Drougkas A, Voet E, Van Balen K, Wevers M (2018) Crack monitoring in historical masonry with distributed strain and acoustic emission sensing techniques. Constr Build Mater 162:898–907

  27. Ye XW, Xi PS, Su YH, Chen B, Han JP (2018) Stochastic characterization of wind field characteristics of an arch bridge instrumented with structural health monitoring system. Struct Saf 71:47–56

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Chan Hee Lee.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kim, S.H., Lee, C.H. & Jo, Y.H. Behavioral characteristics and structural stability of the walls in the ancient Korean Royal Tombs from the sixth century Baekje Kingdom. Environ Earth Sci 79, 81 (2020).

Download citation


  • Royal Tombs at Songsanri
  • Automatic measuring system
  • Behavioral monitoring
  • Environmental change
  • Displacement