Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:673 | Cite as

Human health risk assessment of soil in an abandoned arsenic plant site: implications for contaminated site remediation

  • Jiao Li
  • Juntao Fan
  • Jinyuan Jiang
  • Yuanzheng Zhai
  • Zhuoran Luo
  • Zhuo Zhang
  • Jin WuEmail author
Original Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

The abandoned contaminated site remediation has been recognized valuable for their redevelopment bringing social, economic and environmental benefits. The risk assessment is a key step in the process of contaminate site remediation. However, in terms of experience of contaminated site risk assessment, China is in the early stage. A challenge for decision makers responsible for clean-up of contaminated sites has been the understanding the crucial role of risk assessment in the process of contaminated site remediation. In this study, a site-specific human health risk assessment was used to prioritize the high-risk sites contaminated with heavy metals (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in Luoma site, located in Hechi City, China. It is found that, for As, Cd, Pb and Zn, the China’s soil threshold value exceeded in 96%, 78%, 35%, and 43% of analyzed soil samples, respectively. Further studies conclusively showed the soil at Luoma site in its present condition pose non-cancer and cancer risks to potential future receptors. The main contribution of non-cancer and cancer risks was through oral intake. As and Pb were the dominant substances responsible for cumulative risk and sub-areas which require to remediate. The obtained results have confirmed the environment effects and high human health risk at Luoma site. They may also be used to provide scientific basis for contaminated remediation and redevelopment.

Keywords

Heavy metal Contaminated site Human health risk assessment Soil contamination 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41807344).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Chen R, De Sherbinin A, Ye C et al (2014) China’s soil pollution: farms on the frontline. Science 344(6185):691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chiang SYD, Gu Q (2015) Brownfield sites remediation technology overview, trends, and opportunities in China. Remediat J 25(3):85–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. CMEP (Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection) (1995) Environmental quality standard for soils (GB15618–1995). CMEP, Beijing (In Chinese) Google Scholar
  4. CMEP (Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection) (2014) Technical guidelines for risk assessment of contaminated sites (HJ 25.3—2014). Beijing. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. Coulon F, Jones K, Li H et al (2016) China’s soil and groundwater management challenges: lessons from the UK’s experience and opportunities for China. Environ Int 91:196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CRNCDSR (2015) Chinese residents of nutrition and chronic disease status reports. State Council Information Office of China. http://www.scio.gov.cn/zxbd/tt/jd/Document/1439377/1439377.htm. Accessed 30 Jun 2015
  7. FAO (2000) Assessing soil contamination. A reference manual. FAO Pesticide Disposal Series 8. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  8. Fernández-Caliani JC (2012) Risk-based assessment of multimetallic soil pollution in the industrialized peri-urban area of Huelva, Spain. Environ Geochem Health 34:123–139.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-011-9396-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Financial Times, Chinese environment: ground operation (2015). http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/d096f594-4be0-11e5-b558-8a9722977189.html, Accessed 2 Sept 2015
  10. Kabengi N, Chrysochoou M (2015) Soil science in environmental management. In: Sarkar D, Datta R, Mukherjee A, Hannigan R (eds) An integrated approach to environmental management. Wiley, Rome, pp 75–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Li P, Lin C, Cheng H et al (2015) Contamination and health risks of soil heavy metals around a lead/zinc smelter in southwestern China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:391–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lu Y, Song S, Wang R et al (2015) Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China. Environ Int 77:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ordóñez A, Álvarez R, Loredo J (2013) Asturian mercury mining district (Spain) and the environment: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:7490–7508.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1663-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Qu C, Shi W, Guo J et al (2016) China’s Soil pollution control: choices and challenges. Environ Sci Technol 50:13181–13183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. SCC (State Council of the People’s Republic of China) (2016) The National Soil Pollution Prevention and Treatment Action Plan of China. http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2016-05/31/content_5078377.htm (in Chinese)
  16. Stezar IC, Pizzol L, Critto A et al (2013) Comparison of risk-based decision-support systems for brownfield site rehabilitation: DESYRE and SADA applied to a Romanian case study. J Environ Manag 131:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Teng Y, Li J, Wu J et al (2015) Environmental distribution and associated human health risk due to trace elements and organic compounds in soil in Jiangxi province, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 122:406–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (2012) The Fourth United Nations World Water Development Report: managing water under risk and uncertainty (WWDR4), UNESCO, Marseilles. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000215644
  19. US EPA (2000) Superfund Supplemental Guidance to RAGS: Region 4 bulletins, human health risk assessment bulletins (US EPA Region 4, originally published November 1995)Google Scholar
  20. US EPA (2013) Mid-Atlantic risk assessment, User’s guide November 2013. Available at https://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening-levels-rsls-generic-tables-november-2015. Accessed Nov 2013
  21. US EPA (2014) Assessing dermal exposure from soil. Region 3 Technical Guidance Manual, risk assessment. Available at https://www.epa.gov/risk/assessing-dermal-exposuresoil. Accessed Dec 2014
  22. US EPA (2015) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Regional screening levels frequent questions. Available at https://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening-levelsfrequent-questions-november-2015#FQ13 Accessed Nov 2015
  23. US EPA (1989) Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Human health evaluation manual. Part A. Interim Final, vol 1. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Final Publication, Washington (EPA/540/1-89/002) Google Scholar
  24. US EPA (2001) Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Human health evaluation manual. Part D. Standardized planning, reporting, and review of superfund risk assessment, vol 9285. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, pp 7–47Google Scholar
  25. US EPA (2002) Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington (OSWER 9355.4-24) Google Scholar
  26. US EPA (2003) Recommendations of the technical review workgroup for lead for an approach to assessing risks associated with adult exposure to lead in soil. Final (December 1996). Technical Review Workgroup for Lead, Washington (EPA-540-R-03-001) Google Scholar
  27. US EPA (2009) Update of the Adult Lead Methodology’s default baseline blood lead concentration and geometric standard deviation parameters. Office of Waste and Emergency Response, Washington (OSWER 9200.2-82) Google Scholar
  28. Wcisło E, Bronder J, Bubak A et al (2016) Human health risk assessment in restoring safe and productive use of abandoned contaminated sites. Environ Int 94:436–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wu J, Teng Y, Lu S et al (2014) Evaluation of soil contamination indices in a mining area of Jiangxi, China. PLoS One 9(9):e112917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wu Q, Leung JYS, Geng X et al (2015) Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals. Sci Total Environ 506:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Architecture and Civil EngineeringBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Chinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Water SciencesBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of Land Science and TechnologyChina University of GeosciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations