Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:699 | Cite as

Geochemical and environmental health threat evaluation of heavy metals in groundwater of Asad Abad, Hamedan, Iran

  • Mohsen JalaliEmail author
  • Masoumeh Ghanbari
  • Mahdi Jalali
Original Article


Geochemical, heavy metals (HMs) distribution, and environmental health treat due to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) had been studied within the groundwater of Asad Abad, Hamedan, Iran. The order and average percentage (meq l−1) of cations and anions has been: Ca2+ (49.3) > Mg2+ (32.3) > Na+ (17.9) > K+ (0.5) and \({\text{HCO}}_{3}^{ - }\) (62.7) > Cl (28.0) > > SO42− (6.2) > \({\text{NO}}_{3}^{ - }\) (3.1). The principal water types were: Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3, and Na-HCO3. In contrast to the background concentration (3.4 mg l−1) and threshold (13 mg l−1) of \({\text{NO}}_{3}^{ - }\), 45 and 40 percentage of water samples confirmed higher concentrations, respectively. The mean concentration (μg l−1) of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn has been 117.2, 29.3, 136.0, 91.9, 48.4 and 5.8, respectively, and as a consequence, the order of HMs was Fe > Cd > Ni > Pb > Cu > Zn. Heavy metals which include Cd, Pb and Ni (37%) of water samples exceeded permissible levels, while Cu, Fe (96.5%) and Zn had been observed to be inside permissible limits. Contamination factor calculated for all HMs confirmed that contamination in water samples varies mostly from low to mild contamination. Based on sum of the percentage of each HM in class 2, 3 and 4 (moderate, considerable and very high degree of contamination, respectively), the contribution of every HM in contamination degree turned into calculate and the order was: Pb (100%) > Zn (93%) > Cu (71%) > Fe (64%) > Cd (53%) > Ni (43%). The outcomes indicated that Cd posed a capability non-carcinogenic health risk to consumers in all sampling sites.


Environmental health risk Contamination factor Cadmium Heavy metals Nitrate Water quality 



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohsen Jalali
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masoumeh Ghanbari
    • 2
  • Mahdi Jalali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, College of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamadanIran
  2. 2.Department of Soil Science, Faculty of AgricultureMalayer UniversityMalayerIran

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