Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:645 | Cite as

Evaluation of toxic metal(loid)s concentration in soils around an open-cast coal mine (Eastern India)

  • Deep Raj
  • Adarsh KumarEmail author
  • Subodh Kumar Maiti
Original Article
  • 83 Downloads

Abstract

Open-cast coal-mining activities release a substantial amount of potentially toxic metal(loid)s or metals which contaminates soil in its vicinity. A total of 75 soil samples were collected from an open-cast coal-mining area (North Karanpura area, India), representatives of five land-use sites, namely roadside soil (RSS), reclaimed mine soil (RMS), forest soil (FS), residential land soil (RS), and agricultural soil (AS) from three profiles (0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm). The samples were analyzed for five USEPA recognized potentially toxic metals, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb). Ecological and health risks were assessed to study the impact of metals pollution on ecological ecosystem and children. Hg concentrations were found above the maximum permissible limit and highest in RSS (0.90 mg kg−1) which was 13-, 12-, and 4-fold higher than AS, RS, and FS, respectively. Among all soil samples, a high concentration of Hg was found in topsoil profile (0–10 cm) which indicates anthropogenic sources of Hg due to coal dust deposition and transport activities in the mining region. In addition, the increased concentration of Cd was also observed for most of the sites (RSS: 1.35 mg kg−1; RMS: 1.25 mg kg−1). For all the metals in all the sites, the concentration decreased along the depth. Contamination factor and ecological risk index suggested that roadside and reclaimed area had very high ecological risk due to major contribution of Hg and As contamination in soil. The pollution load index was also found to be very high from the threshold limit, which suggests the possibility of transfer of contaminant from soil to children in coming future, and causes severe health risk.

Keywords

Coal mining Metals Mercury Cadmium Ecological risk Health risk 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India and Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad for providing research fellowship and necessary laboratory facilities for conducting the research. AK also acknowledges his work support by Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (Agreement No 02.A03.21.0006).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12665_2019_8657_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 29 kb)

References

  1. Ahirwal J, Maiti SK (2018) Development of Technosol properties and recovery of carbon stock after 16 years of revegetation on coal mine degraded lands, India. CATENA 166:114–123Google Scholar
  2. Ahirwal J, Maiti SK, Singh AK (2017) Changes in ecosystem carbon pool and soil CO2 flux following post-mine reclamation in dry tropical environment, India. Sci Total Environ 583:153–162Google Scholar
  3. Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Parkinson JA, Quarmby C (1974) Chemical analysis of ecological materials. Black-well Scientific Publications, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  4. Alloway BJ (2013) Sources of heavy metals and metalloids in soils. In: Alloway BJ (ed) Heavy metals in soil. Springer, London, pp 11–50Google Scholar
  5. Antoniadis V, Shaheen SM, Boersch J, Frohne T, Du Laing G, Rinklebec J (2017) Bioavailability and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in garden edible vegetables and soils around a highly contaminated former mining area in Germany. J Environ Manag 186:192–200Google Scholar
  6. ASTM (2006) ASTM D6414: Standard Test Methods for Total Mercury in Coal and Coal Residues by Acid Extraction or Wet Oxidation/Cold Vapour Atomic AbsorptionGoogle Scholar
  7. ASTM (2011) ASTM D2013-2013 M: Standard Practices for Preparing Coal Samples for AnalysisGoogle Scholar
  8. Bai X, Li W, Chen Y et al (2007) The general distributions of trace elements in Chinese coals. Coal Qual Technol 1:1–4 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  9. Bharagava RN, Chandra R, Rai V (2008) Phytoextraction of trace elements and physiological changes in Indian mustard plants (Brassica nigra L.) grown in post methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) irrigated soil. Bioresour Technol 99:8316–8324Google Scholar
  10. Bhuiyan MA, Parvez L, Islam MA, Dampare SB, Suzuki S (2010) Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh. J Hazard Mater 173:384–392Google Scholar
  11. CEA (2018) Report on fly ash generation at coal/lignite based thermal power stations and its utilizations in the country for 1st half of the year 2017–18 (April, 2017 to Sept., 2017). New Delhi. Retrieved from http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/others/thermal/tcd/flyash_201718-firsthalf.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2018
  12. Chen J, Wei F, Zheng C, Wu Y, Adriano DC (1991) Background concentrations of elements in soils of China. Water Air Soil Pollut 57:699–712Google Scholar
  13. Combest KB (1991) Trace metals in sediment: spatial trends and sorption processes. Water Resour Bull 27:19–28Google Scholar
  14. Cragin JH, Foley BT (1985) Sample digestion and drying techniques for optimal recovery of mercury from soils and sediments (No. CRREL-SR-85-16). Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab Hanover NHGoogle Scholar
  15. Dai S, Ren D (2007) Effects of magmatic intrusion on mineralogy and geochemistry of coals from the Fengfeng-Handan Coalfield, Hebei. China. Energy & Fuels 21(3):1663–1673Google Scholar
  16. Dai S, Zou J, Jiang Y, Ward CR, Wang X, TianLi Xue W, Liu S, Tian H, Sun X, Zhou D (2012) Mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Pennsylvanian coal in the Adaohai Mine, Daqingshan Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China: modes of occurrence and origin of diaspore, gorceixite, and ammoniumillite. Int J Coal Geol 94:250–270Google Scholar
  17. Deka J, Sarma HP (2012) Heavy metal contamination in soil in an industrial zone and its relation with some soil properties. Scholars Research Library. Arch Appl Sci Res 4:831–836Google Scholar
  18. Doabi SA, Karami M, Afyuni M, Yeganeh M (2018) Pollution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soil, atmospheric dust and major food crops in Kermanshah province. Iran. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 163:153–164Google Scholar
  19. Fan W, Bai Z, Li H, Qiao J, Xu J, Li X (2011) Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in reclaimed soils. Trans CSAE 27:348–354Google Scholar
  20. Fenton O, Vero S, Ibrahim TG, Murphy PNC, Sherriff SC, ÓhUallacháin D (2015) Consequences of using different soil texture determination methodologies for soil physical quality and unsaturated zone time lag estimates. J Contam Hydrol 182:16–24Google Scholar
  21. Finkelman RB (1993) Trace and minor elements in coal. Organic geochemistry. Springer, New York, pp 593–607Google Scholar
  22. Galunin E, Ferreti J, Zapelini I, Vieira I, Ricardo Teixeira Tarley C, Abrão T, Santos MJ (2014) Cadmium mobility in sediments and soils from a coal mining area on Tibagi River watershed: environmental risk assessment. J Hazard Mater 265:280–287Google Scholar
  23. Gerwitz A (1977) A split tube method for soil sampling. J Appl Ecol 14:225–227Google Scholar
  24. Hakanson L (1980) An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Res 14:975–1001Google Scholar
  25. Huang X, Hu J, Qin F, Quan W, Cao R, Fan M, Wu X (2017) Heavy Metal Pollution and Ecological Assessment around the Jinsha Coal-Fired Power Plant (China). Int J Environ Res Public Health 14:1589Google Scholar
  26. Kabata-Pendias A, Mukherjee AB (2007) Trace elements from soil to human. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32714-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ketris MP, Yudovich YE (2009) Estimations of Clarkes for Carbonaceous biolithes: world averages for trace element contents in black shales and coals. Int J Coal Geol 78(2):136–148Google Scholar
  28. Kumar A, Maiti SK (2014) Translocation and bioaccumulation of metals in Oryza sativa and Zea mays growing in chromite- asbestos contaminated agricultural fields, Jharkhand, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 93:434–441Google Scholar
  29. Kumar A, Maiti SK (2015) Assessment of potentially toxic heavy metal contamination in agricultural fields, sediment, and water from an abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste of Roro hill, Chaibasa, India. Environ Earth Sci 74:2617–2633Google Scholar
  30. Lanzerstorfer C (2018) Heavy metals in the finest size fractions of road-deposited sediments. Environ Pollut 239:522–531Google Scholar
  31. Li H, Shi A, Zhang X (2015a) Particle size distribution and characteristics of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments from Beijing Olympic Park. J Environ Sci 32:228–237Google Scholar
  32. Li J, Zhou Q, Yuan G, He X, Xie P (2015b) Mercury bioaccumulation in the food web of Three Gorges Reservoir (China): tempo-spatial patterns and effect of reservoir management. Sci Total Environ 527:203–210Google Scholar
  33. Li P, Lin C, Cheng H, Duan X, Lei K (2015c) Contamination and health risks of soil heavy metals around a lead/zinc smelter in southwestern China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:391–399Google Scholar
  34. Liang J, Feng C, Zeng G, Gao X, Zhong M, Li X, Li X, He X, Fang Y (2017) Spatial distribution and source identification of heavy metals in surface soils in a typical coal mine city, Lianyuan, China. Environ Pollut 225:681–690Google Scholar
  35. Liu X, Song Q, Tang Y, Li W, Xu J, Wu J, Wang F, Brookes PC (2013) Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: a multi-medium analysis. Sci Tot Environ 463:530–540Google Scholar
  36. Loska K, Wiechula D, Barska B, Cebula E, Chojnecka A (2003) Assessment of arsenic enrichment of cultivated soils in Southern Poland. Pol J Environ Stud 12:187–192Google Scholar
  37. Lu A, Wang J, Qin X, Wang K, Han P, Zhang S (2012) Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of the spatial distribution and origin of heavy metals in the agricultural soils in Shunyi, Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ 425:66–74Google Scholar
  38. Luo Y, Duan L, Wang L, Xu G, Wang S, Hao J (2014) Mercury concentrations in forest soils and stream waters in northeast and south China. Sci Total Environ 496:714–720Google Scholar
  39. Maiti SK (2007) Bioreclamation of coalmine overburden dumps-with special emphasis on micronutrients and heavy metals accumulation in tree species. Environ Monit Assess 125:111–122Google Scholar
  40. Maiti SK (2013) Ecology and Ecosystem in Mine-Degraded Land. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Martín JAR, Nanos N (2016) Soil as an archive of coal-fired power plant mercury deposition. J Hazard Mater 308:131–138Google Scholar
  42. Masto RE, Sheik S, Nehru G, Selvi VA, George J, Ram L (2015) Assessment of environmental soil quality around Sonepur Bazari mine of Raniganj coalfield, India. Solid Earth 6:811Google Scholar
  43. Maya M, Musekiwa C, Mthembi P, Crowley M (2015) Remote sensing and geochemistry techniques for the assessment of coal mining pollution, Emalahleni (Witbank), Mpumalanga. South Afr J Geomat 4:174–188Google Scholar
  44. Morrison RJ, Peshut PJ, West RJ, Lasorsa BK (2015) Mercury (Hg) speciation in coral reef systems of remote Oceania: implications for the artisanal fisheries of Tutuila, Samoa Islands. Marine Poll Bull 96:41–56Google Scholar
  45. Muszynska E, Hanus-Fajerska E, Piwowarczyk B, Augustynowicz J, Ciarkowska K, Czech T (2017) From laboratory to field studies–The assessment of Biscutella laevigata suitability to biological reclamation of areas contaminated with lead and cadmium. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 142:266–273Google Scholar
  46. Pandey B, Mukherjee A, Agrawal M, Singh S (2017) Assessment of seasonal and site specific variations in soil physical, chemical and biological properties around opencast coal mines. Pedosphere.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1002-0160(17)60431-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pantuzzo FL, Silva JCJ, Ciminelli VS (2009) A fast and accurate microwave-assisted digestion method for arsenic determination in complex mining residues by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Hazard Mater 168:1636–1638Google Scholar
  48. Park CH, Eom Y, Lee LJE, Lee TG (2013) Simple and accessible analytical methods for the determination of mercury in soil and coal samples. Chemosphere 93:9–13Google Scholar
  49. Pedron F, Petruzzelli G, Barbafieri M, Tassi E (2013) Remediation of a mercury-contaminated industrial soil using bioavailable contaminant stripping. Pedosphere 23:104–110Google Scholar
  50. Pietrzykowski M, Socha J, Van Doorn NS (2014) Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas. Sci Total Environ 470:501–510Google Scholar
  51. Piper CS (1966) Soil and Plant Analysis. Hans Publishers, BombayGoogle Scholar
  52. Podolsky F, Ettler V, Sebek O, Ježek J, Mihaljevič M, Kříbek B, Sracek O, Vaněk A, Penížek V, Majer V, Mapani B, Kamona F, Nyambe I (2015) Mercury in soil profiles from metal mining and smelting areas in Namibia and Zambia: distribution and potential sources. J Soils Sedim 15:648–658Google Scholar
  53. Prasad MNV (1995) Cadmium toxicity and tolerance in vascular plants. Environ Exp Bot 35(4):525–545Google Scholar
  54. Rai VK, Raman NS, Choudhary SK (2013) Mercury in thermal power plants–a case study. Int J Pure Appl Biosci 1:31–37Google Scholar
  55. Ramesh R, Subramanian V, Van Grieken R (1990) Heavy metal distribution in sediments of Krishna river basin, India. Environ Geol Water Sci 15:207–216Google Scholar
  56. Rana V, Maiti SK, Jagadevan S (2016) Ecological risk assessment of metals contamination in the sediments of natural urban wetlands in dry tropical climate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 97:407–412Google Scholar
  57. Reimann C, Garrett RG (2005) Geochemical background—concept and reality. Sci Total Environ 350:12–27Google Scholar
  58. Ren DY, Zhao FH, Dai SF et al (2006) Geochemistry of trace elements in coals. The Science Press, Beijing, pp 268–279Google Scholar
  59. Reza SK, Baruah U, Singh SK, Das TH (2015) Geostatistical and multivariate analysis of soil heavy metal contamination near coal mining area, Northeastern India. Environ Earth Sci 73:5425–5433Google Scholar
  60. Roba C, Roşu C, Piştea I, Ozunu A, Baciu C (2016) Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:6062–6073Google Scholar
  61. Sahoo PK, Equeenuddin SM, Powell MA (2016) Trace elements in soils around coal mines: current scenario, impact and available techniques for management. Curr Poll Rep 2:1–14Google Scholar
  62. Salonen VP, Korkka-Niemi K (2007) Influence of parent sediments on the concentration of heavy metals in urban and suburban soils in Turku, Finland. Appl Geochem 22:906–918Google Scholar
  63. Singh AN, Raghubanshi AS, Singh JS (2004) Impact of native tree plantations on mine spoil in a dry tropical environment. For Ecol Manag 187:49–60Google Scholar
  64. Swaine DJ, Goodarzi F (1995a) Environmental aspects of trace elements in coal. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  65. Swaine DJ, Goodarzi F (1995b) General Introduction. Environmental aspects of trace elements in coal. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  66. Tang XY, Huang WH (2004) Trace elements in Chinese coal. The Commercial Press (In Chinese), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  67. Tang Q, Liu G, Zhou C, Zhang H, Sun R (2013) Distribution of environmentally sensitive elements in residential soils near a coal-fired power plant: potential risks to ecology and children’s health. Chemosphere 93:2473–2479Google Scholar
  68. Tomlinson DL, Wilson JG, Harris CR, Jeffrey DW (1980) Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 33:566Google Scholar
  69. Tong XUE, Ren-Qing WANG, Zhang MM, Jiu-Lan DAI (2013) Adsorption and desorption of mercury (II) in three forest soils in Shandong Province, China. Pedosphere 23:265–272Google Scholar
  70. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2014) Assessment of the Mercury Content in Coal fed to Power Plant and study of Mercury Emissions from the Sector in India. UNEP Chemicals Branch, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  71. USEPA (1989) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), volume I. Human Health Evaluation Manual (HHEM)—part A, baseline risk assessment. Washington DC: Office of emergency and remedial response; [EPA/540/1-89/002]Google Scholar
  72. USEPA (1996) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Method 3050B: Acid digestion of sediments, Sludges and Soils, Revision 2Google Scholar
  73. USEPA (2001) United States Environmental Protection Agency Supplemental Guidance for Developing Soil Screening Levels for Superfund Sites. OSWER 9355.4-24. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. US Environmental Protection Agency. Washington (DC)Google Scholar
  74. USEPA (2002) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. Washington, DC: Office of solid waste and emergency response; [OSWER 9355.4-24]Google Scholar
  75. USEPA (2011) United States Environmental Protection Agency (Exposure factors handbook 2011 edition (Final); http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/recordisplay.cfm?deid (article id: 236252)
  76. Varol M (2013) Dissolved heavy metal concentrations of the Kralkızı, Dicle and Batman dam reservoirs in the Tigris River basin, Turkey. Chemosphere 93:954–962Google Scholar
  77. Verma SK, Masto RE, Gautam S, Choudhury DP, Ram LC, Maiti SK, Maity S (2015) Investigations on PAHs and trace elements in coal and its combustion residues from a power plant. Fuel 162:138–147Google Scholar
  78. Wang Q, Shen W, Ma Z (2000) Estimation of mercury emission from coal combustion in China. Environ Sci Tech 34(13):2711–2713Google Scholar
  79. Wang J, Feng X, Anderson CW, Xing Y, Shang L (2012) Remediation of mercury contaminated sites–a review. J Hazard Mater 221:1–18Google Scholar
  80. Wang C, Li W, Guo M, Ji J (2017) Ecological risk assessment on heavy metals in soils: use of soil diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Sci Rep 7:40709Google Scholar
  81. Wiatrowska K, Komisarek J (2019) Role of the light fraction of soil organic matter in trace elements binding. PLoS One 14:p.e0217077. www.unep.org/chemicalsandwaste/Portals/9/Mercury/REPORT%20FINAL%2019%20March%202014.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2018Google Scholar
  82. Xin M, Gustin M, Johnson D (2007) Laboratory investigation of the potential for re-emission of atmospherically derived Hg from soils. Environ Sci Technol 41:4946–4951Google Scholar
  83. Xu J, Bravo AG, Lagerkvist A, Bertilsson S, Sjoblom R, Kumpiene J (2015a) Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil. Environ Int 74:42–53Google Scholar
  84. Xu X, Lu XW, Han XF, Zhao N (2015b) Ecological and health risk assessment of metal in resuspended particles of urban street dust from an industrial city in China. Curr Sci 108:72–79Google Scholar
  85. Xue S, Shi L, Wu C, Wu H, Qin Y, Pan W, Hartley W, Cui M (2017) Cadmium, lead, and arsenic contamination in paddy soils of a mining area and their exposure effects on human HEPG2 and keratinocyte cell-lines. Environ Res 156:23–30Google Scholar
  86. Yang Q, Li Z, Lu X, Duan Q, Huang L, Bi J (2018) A review of soil heavy metal pollution from industrial and agricultural regions in China: pollution and risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 642:690–700Google Scholar
  87. Yao DX, Meng J, Zhang ZG (2010) Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risk in reclaimed soils in Huainan mining area. J Coal Sci Engg (China) 16:316–319Google Scholar
  88. Yao ZT, Ji XS, Sarker PK, Tang JH, Ge LQ, Xia MS, Xi YQ (2015) A comprehensive review on the applications of coal fly ash. Earth-Sci Rev 141:105–121Google Scholar
  89. Yu T, Zhang Y, Zhang Y (2012) Distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals in different particle-size fractions of sediments in Taihu Lake, China. Chem Spec Bioavail 24:205–215Google Scholar
  90. Yu L, Yin L, Xu Q, Xiong Y (2015) Effects of different kinds of coal on the speciation and distribution of mercury in flue gases. J Energy Inst 88:136–142Google Scholar
  91. Zhai M, Totolo O, Modisi MP, Finkelman RB, Kelesitse SM, Menyatso M (2009) Heavy metal distribution in soils near Palapye, Botswana: an evaluation of the environmental impact of coal mining and combustion on soils in a semi-arid region. Environ Geochem Health 31:759Google Scholar
  92. Zhao H, Li X, Wang X, Tian D (2010) Grain size distribution of road-deposited sediment and its contribution to heavy metal pollution in urban runoff in Beijing, China. J Hazard Mater 183:203–210Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Center of Mining EnvironmentIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Experimental Biology and Biotechnology, Institute of Natural Sciences and MathematicsUral Federal UniversityEkaterinburgRussia

Personalised recommendations