Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:567 | Cite as

An empirical strength criterion for the Antalya tufa rock, southern Turkey

  • Evrim Sopacı
  • Haluk AkgünEmail author
  • Jaak J. K. Daemen
Original Article


This paper formulates an empirical strength criterion for the heterogeneous Antalya tufa rock mass assuming that the heterogeneity effect is represented by the unit weight and the porosity of the tufa rock, which is highly variable from a geomechanical point of view. Unconstrained non-linear regression analyses have been used to identify the strength criterion and material constants in terms of fitting an equation and determining its regression parameters. Prior to this approach, the fitting of the laboratory data to the failure criteria defined by Coulomb (Mem Acad R Des Sci 3:38, 1776), Bieniawski (J S Afr Inst Min Metal 74(8):312–320, 1974) and Hoek and Brown (J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(GT9):1013–1035, 1980) has been performed by means of constrained regression analyses. For the regression analyses, the results of the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength tests along with the Brazilian tensile strength tests have been used. The regression analysis has been performed in two stages. In the first stage, the results of the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength tests have been included in the analyses; in the second stage, the results of the Brazilian tensile strength tests have been added to the regression analyses performed in the first stage.


Antalya Tufa rock Empirical strength criterion Karst Curve fitting 



This work was supported by the Middle East Technical University (METU) Research Fund Project No. BAP-03-09-2009-03. Thanks are due to the staff of the Technical Research Department of DLH, especially to Mehmet Altıntaş for his kind assistance in the laboratory tests. Cengiz Tan and Ebru Deniz are gratefully acknowledged for their assistance in SEM, DTA and TGA analyses, respectively. Furthermore, technical supports of Uğur Kuran and Mustafa Gürbüz in geotechnical field testing, assistance of Süha Aykurt, Oğuz Tüfenkçi and Ersin Barboros in site investigations are gratefully acknowledged. We would like to express our gratitude toward Serdar Özüş and Özlem Alpaslan for providing geotechnical literature. Deepest gratitude is also due to Ahmet Benliay, Mustafa Yücel Kaya, Hakan Tanyaş, Dr. Mustafa Kerem Koçkar, Dr. Kıvanç Okalp, Dr. Arif Mert Eker and Selim Cambazoğlu for their endless support.


The research performed in this study was supported by the Middle East Technical University (METU) Research Fund Project No. BAP-03-09-2009-03, which the second author (Haluk Akgün) has received from the Middle East Technical University (METU) Research Fund.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evrim Sopacı
    • 1
  • Haluk Akgün
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jaak J. K. Daemen
    • 3
  1. 1.Golder Associates Inc.RenoUSA
  2. 2.Geotechnology Unit, Department of Geological EngineeringMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Mackay School of Earth Sciences and EngineeringUniversity of NevadaRenoUSA

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