Effects of dam construction on total solids in the Ca River, north-central Vietnam
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The river regime laws of the hydraulic properties of the cross sections of two hydrological stations (Dua and Yen Thuong) along the Ca River in north-central Vietnam were combined into power functions with exponents of 1.46–1.85 using the Manning roughness coefficient and the settling velocity or the particle size to simulate the suspended sediment load. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency, percent bias, and the ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of the measured data were used to evaluate the calibration process for the pre-dam period (1994–2004) and for validation for the post-dam period (2005–2014). Effects of dam construction include a change in the relationship between the Manning roughness coefficient and sediment particle size. The observed sediment load decreased by approximately 20–40% after dam construction at both stations. We used a power function with exponents of 0.968 and 0.992 for the dissolved solid load to calculate the long-term annual total dissolved solids at the Dua and Yen Thuong stations, respectively. After dam construction, the average value of the total suspended solids–total dissolved solids ratio decreased from 3.0 to 2.3 at the Dua station and from 4.1 to 2.2 at the Yen Thuong station.
KeywordsTotal solids Suspended solids Dissolved solids Regime laws Sediment transport Ca River
This research was financially supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant no. R11604). The authors would like to express their deep appreciation to Professor Md. Azhar Uddin, Professor Hidetaka Chikamori, and Dr. Mitsuyo Saito of the Graduate School Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University for their helpful comments pertaining to the manuscript and their kind support throughout the research process. The authors also thank Nguyen Xuan Tien of North-Central Hydro-meteorological Centre, Vietnam and the staff at the Dua and Yen Thuong hydrological stations for allowing us to access their gauging records. The authors sincerely thank the anonymous reviewers for their very constructive and useful comments that helped to improve the quality of this manuscript.
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